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See detailHemicelluloses and Lignin in Biorefineries
wertz, Jean-Luc; Deleu, Magali ULg; Coppée, Séverine et al

Book published by CRC Press (in press)

Hemicelluloses and Lignin in Biorefineries provides an understanding of lignocellulosic biomass, which is mainly composed of cellulose, hemicelluloses, and lignin. It promotes the valorization of these ... [more ▼]

Hemicelluloses and Lignin in Biorefineries provides an understanding of lignocellulosic biomass, which is mainly composed of cellulose, hemicelluloses, and lignin. It promotes the valorization of these molecules in the context of the bioeconomy and presents hemicelluloses and lignin, which are generated in lignocellulosic biorefineries, as the molecules of the future. The viability of these molecules lies in their renewability and potential. This book covers all aspects of hemicelluloses and lignin including structure, biosynthesis, extraction, biodegradation, and conversion. The book also looks ahead to the socioeconomic and environmental value of biobased industry and emphasizes an understanding of the potential of lignocellulosic biomass. [less ▲]

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See detailWas there a Roman Linguistic Imperialism during the Republic and the early Principate
Rochette, Bruno ULg

in Lingue e Linguaggio (in press)

One of the main consequences of the Roman conquest was the diffusion of the Latin language and of Roman culture throughout the conquered countries. According to many texts of the imperial period, Latin ... [more ▼]

One of the main consequences of the Roman conquest was the diffusion of the Latin language and of Roman culture throughout the conquered countries. According to many texts of the imperial period, Latin became a universal language during the Imperium Romanum. But what is the reality? Did Rome develop any linguistic policies? There is some evidence to show that Rome’s response regarding the sociolinguistic problems that arose under its rule was to be flexible and willing to adapt to the specific requirements of each situation. Under the Republic and the early Principate, there was, in fact, a great flexibility in language use by the Romans in their dealings with the Greek world. Even though Latin-Greek bilingualism was widespread among the Romans of the Republic and the early Principate, in the public context, Latin maintained a high-level role because it represented the language of Rome’s power. In spite of this flexible approach to language use, a natural competition developed between the language of the dominant and the language of the dominated. In the Occident, Latin became the only vehicle of communication, both oral and written, whereas in the Orient, one notes a paradoxical situation: the Hellenization of the Romans due to the high cultural position of the Greek language. However, this dichotomy did not produce a division of the Roman Empire into two impenetrable parts, closed to mutual linguistic and cultural influences, but rather, it generated a more complicated situation, especially in the Oriental part of the Empire. It is this situation that will be analyzed in the present paper. [less ▲]

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See detailNormalizing shoulder EMG: an optimal set of maximum isometric voluntary contraction tests considering reproducibility
Schwartz, Cédric ULg; Tubez, François ULg; WANG, François-Charles ULg et al

in Journal of Electromyography and Kinesiology (in press)

Normalization of the electromyography (EMG) signal is often performed relatively to maximal voluntary activations (MVA) obtained during maximum isometric voluntary contraction (MVIC). The first aim was to ... [more ▼]

Normalization of the electromyography (EMG) signal is often performed relatively to maximal voluntary activations (MVA) obtained during maximum isometric voluntary contraction (MVIC). The first aim was to provide an inter-session reproducible protocol to normalize the signal of eight shoulder muscles. The protocol should also lead to a level of activation >90% of MVA for >90% of the volunteers. The second aim was to evaluate the influence of the method used to extract the MVA from the EMG envelope on the normalized EMG signal. Thirteen volunteers performed 12 MVICs twice (one-week interval). Several time constants (100 ms to 2 s) were compared when extracting the MVA from the EMG envelope. The EMG activity was also acquired during an arm elevation. Our results show that a combination of nine MVIC tests was required to meet our requirements including reproducibility. Both the number of MVIC tests and the size of the time constant influence the normalized EMG signal during the dynamic activity (variations up to 15%). A time constant of 1 s was a good compromise to extract the MVA. These findings are valuable to improve the reproducibility of EMG signal normalization. [less ▲]

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See detailIntensity and memory characteristics of near-death experiences
Martial, Charlotte ULg; Charland-Verville, Vanessa ULg; Cassol, Helena ULg et al

in Consciousness & Cognition (in press)

Memories of Near-Death Experiences (NDEs) seem to be very detailed and stable over time. At present, there is still no satisfactory explanation for the NDEs’ rich phenomenology. Here we compared ... [more ▼]

Memories of Near-Death Experiences (NDEs) seem to be very detailed and stable over time. At present, there is still no satisfactory explanation for the NDEs’ rich phenomenology. Here we compared phenomenological characteristics of NDE memories with the reported experience’s intensity. We included 152 individuals with a self-reported “classical” NDE (i.e. occurring in life-threatening conditions). All participants completed a mailed questionnaire that included a measure of phenomenological characteristics of memories (the Memory Characteristics Questionnaire; MCQ) and a measure of NDE’s intensity (the Greyson NDE scale). Greyson NDE scale total score was positively correlated with MCQ total score, suggesting that participants who described more intense NDEs also reported more phenomenological memory characteristics of NDE. Using MCQ items, our study also showed that NDE’s intensity is associated in particular with sensory details, personal importance and reactivation frequency variables. [less ▲]

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See detailInsects, the next European foodie craze?
Caparros Megido, Rudy ULg; Haubruge, Eric ULg; Francis, Frédéric ULg

in Edible Insects in Sustainable Food Systems (in press)

Edible insects are systematically targeted as a major future food for European consumers but success in introducing entomophagy in Western society depends on factors governing consumers’ attitudes towards ... [more ▼]

Edible insects are systematically targeted as a major future food for European consumers but success in introducing entomophagy in Western society depends on factors governing consumers’ attitudes towards insect-based products. Effectively, as for sushi in the 2000s, edible insects are considered as new food products in Europe and are deeply related to a fear or a reject feeling by consumers called “food neophobia“. Consequently, several studies have been achieved to face the actual aversion of European consumers for insects. These studies principally tried to understand the insect-related neophobia, to highlight positive arguments for entomophagy development and also to test possible ways of integration of insects as food. The purpose of this chapter is to get an overview of the actual literature on edible insect acceptability in Europe to propose conceivable solutions for product development and new approaches for further studies. [less ▲]

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See detailDual-Specificity Phosphatase Deletion Protects Female, but Not Male, Mice from Endotoxemia- and Polymicrobial-Induced Septic Shock
Vandereyken, Maud; Singh, Pratibha; Wathieu, Caroline ULg et al

in Journal of Immunology (in press)

Dual-specificity phosphatase 3 (DUSP3) is a small phosphatase with poorly known physiological functions and for which only a few substrates are known. Using DUSP3-deficient mice, we recently reported that ... [more ▼]

Dual-specificity phosphatase 3 (DUSP3) is a small phosphatase with poorly known physiological functions and for which only a few substrates are known. Using DUSP3-deficient mice, we recently reported that DUSP3 deficiency confers resistance to endotoxin- and polymicrobial-induced septic shock. We showed that this protection was macrophage dependent. In this study, we further investigated the role of DUSP3 in sepsis tolerance and showed that the resistance is sex dependent. Using adoptive-transfer experiments and ovariectomized mice, we highlighted the role of female sex hormones in the phenotype. Indeed, in ovariectomized female and male mice, the dominance of M2-like macrophages observed in DUSP32/2 female mice was reduced, suggesting a role for this cell subset in sepsis tolerance. At the molecular level, DUSP3 deletion was associated with estrogen dependent decreased phosphorylation of ERK1/2 and Akt in peritoneal macrophages stimulated ex vivo by LPS. Our results demonstrate that estrogens may modulate M2-like responses during endotoxemia in a DUSP3-dependent manner. [less ▲]

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See detailDifferential interaction of synthetic glycolipids with biomimetic plasma membrane lipids correlates with plant biological response
Nasir, Mehmet Nail ULg; Lins, Laurence ULg; Crowet, Jean-Marc ULg et al

in Langmuir (in press)

Natural and synthetic amphiphilic molecules including lipopeptides, lipopolysaccharides and glycolipids are able to induce defense mechanisms in plants. In the present work, the perception of two ... [more ▼]

Natural and synthetic amphiphilic molecules including lipopeptides, lipopolysaccharides and glycolipids are able to induce defense mechanisms in plants. In the present work, the perception of two synthetic C14 rhamnolipids, namely Alk-RL and Ac-RL, differing only at the level of the lipid tail terminal group, have been investigated using biological and biophysical approaches. We showed that Alk-RL induces a stronger early signaling response in tobacco cell suspensions than does Ac-RL. The interactions of both synthetic RLs with simplified biomimetic membranes were further analyzed using experimental and in silico approaches. Our results indicate that the interactions of Alk-RL and Ac-RL with lipids were different in terms of insertion and molecular responses and were dependent on the lipid composition of model membranes. A more favorable insertion of Alk-RL than Ac-RL into lipid membranes is observed. Alk-RL forms more stable molecular assemblies than Ac-RL with phospholipids and sterols. At the molecular level, the presence of sterols tends to increase the RLs’ interaction with lipid bilayers with a fluidizing effect on the alkyl chains. Taken together, our findings suggest that the perception of these synthetic RLs at the membrane level could be related to a lipid-driven process depending on the organization of the membrane and the orientation of the RLs within the membrane and is correlated with the induction of early signaling responses in tobacco cells. [less ▲]

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See detail« La pratique, c'est la théorie » / « La théorie, c'est la pratique » – Henri Meschonnics Poetik des Rhythmus
Viehöver, Vera ULg

in Gerling, Vera Elisabeth; Santana, Belén (Eds.) Literaturübersetzen zwischen Theorie und Praxis. (in press)

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See detailA discontinuous Galerkin method for non-linear electro-thermo-mechanical problems; Application to shape memory composite materials
Homsi, Lina ULg; Noels, Ludovic ULg

in Meccanica (in press)

A coupled Electro-Thermo-Mechanical Discontinuous Galerkin (DG) method is developed considering the non-linear interactions of electrical, thermal, and mechanical fields. In order to develop a stable ... [more ▼]

A coupled Electro-Thermo-Mechanical Discontinuous Galerkin (DG) method is developed considering the non-linear interactions of electrical, thermal, and mechanical fields. In order to develop a stable discontinuous Galerkin formulation the governing equations are expressed in terms of energetically conjugated fields gradients and fluxes. Moreover, the DG method is formulated in finite deformations and finite fields variations. The multi-physics DG formulation is shown to satisfy the consistency condition, and the uniqueness and optimal convergence rate properties are derived under the assumption of small deformation. First the numerical properties are verified on a simple numerical example, and then the framework is applied to simulate the response of smart composite materials in which the shape memory effect of the matrix is triggered by the Joule effect. [less ▲]

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See detailBioinspired redox-active catechol-bearing polymers as ultra-robust organic cathodes for lithium storage
Patil, Nagaraj ULg; Aqil, Abdelhafid ULg; Ouhib, Farid ULg et al

in Advanced Materials (in press)

Redox-active catechols are bioinspired precursors for ortho-quinones that are characterized by higher discharge potentials than para-quinones, the latter being extensively used as organic cathode ... [more ▼]

Redox-active catechols are bioinspired precursors for ortho-quinones that are characterized by higher discharge potentials than para-quinones, the latter being extensively used as organic cathode materials for lithium ion batteries (LIBs). Here, this study demonstrates that the rational molecular design of copolymers bearing catechol- and Li+ ion-conducting anionic pendants endow redox-active polymers (RAPs) with ultrarobust electrochemical energy storage features when combined to carbon nanotubes as a flexible, binder-, and metal current collector-free buckypaper electrode. The importance of the structure and functionality of the RAPs on the battery performances in LIBs is discussed. The structure-optimized RAPs can store high-capacities of 360 mA h g−1 at 5C and 320 mA h g−1 at 30C in LIBs. The high ion and electron mobilities within the buckypaper also enable to register 96 mA h g−1 (24% capacity retention) at an extreme C-rate of 600C (6 s for total discharge). Moreover, excellent cyclability is noted with a capacity retention of 98% over 3400 cycles at 30C. The high capacity, superior active-material utilization, ultralong cyclability, and excellent rate performances of RAPs-based electrode clearly rival most of the state-of-the-art Li+ ion organic cathodes, and opens up new horizons for large-scalable fabrication of electrode materials for ultrarobust Li storage. [less ▲]

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See detailMeasuring brain synaptic vesicle protein 2A with positron emission tomography and [18F]UCB-H.
Bahri, Mohamed Ali ULg; Plenevaux, Alain ULg; Aerts, Joël ULg et al

in Alzheimer’s & Dementia: Translational Research & Clinical Interventions (in press)

Introduction: Brain distribution of synaptic vesicle protein 2Awas measured with fluorine-18 UCBH ([18F]UCB-H) and positron emission tomography (PET). Methods: Images of synaptic density were acquired in ... [more ▼]

Introduction: Brain distribution of synaptic vesicle protein 2Awas measured with fluorine-18 UCBH ([18F]UCB-H) and positron emission tomography (PET). Methods: Images of synaptic density were acquired in healthy volunteers (two young participants and two seniors). Input function was measured by arterial blood sampling (arterial input function) and derived from PET images using carotid activity (image-derived input function). Logan graphical analysis was used to estimate regional synaptic vesicle protein 2A distribution volume. Results: [18F]UCB-H uptake was ubiquitous in cortical and subcortical gray matter. Arterial input function and image-derived input function provided regional distribution volume with a high linear relationship. Discussion: The cerebral distribution of [18F]UCB-H is similar to that recently observed with carbon-11 UCB-J ([11C]UCB-J). An accurate [18F]UCB-H quantification can be performed without invasive arterial blood sampling when no suitable reference region is available, using dynamic PET carotid activity. Brain synaptic density can be studied in vivo in normal and pathological aging. [less ▲]

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See detailCarte géologique de Wallonie à l'échelle 1:25 000. Notice explicative. Hamoir-Ferrières n°49/1-2
Marion, Jean-Marc ULg; Barchy, Laurent

Book published by SPW/DGARNE - Révision (in press)

New geological map of Wallonia published at the scale of 1/25 000, based on a new field work and using previous scientific data produced since the previous editions of Lohest and Fourmarier (1900)

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See detailCarte géologique de Wallonie à l'échelle 1:25 000. Hamoir-Ferrières n°49/1-2
Marion, Jean-Marc ULg; Barchy, Laurent

Cartographic material (in press)

New geological map of Wallonia published at the scale of 1/25 000, based on a new field work and using previous scientific data produced since the previous editions of Lohest and Fourmarier (1900)

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See detailElectric Power Network State Tracking from Multirate Measurements
Alcaide-Moreno, Boris; Fuerte-Esquivel, Claudio; Glavic, Mevludin ULg et al

in IEEE Transactions on Instrumentation and Measurement (in press)

This paper proposes a novel tracking state estimator to process both fast-rate synchronized phasor and slow rate SCADA measurements. The former are assumed to be in limited number. The latter are ... [more ▼]

This paper proposes a novel tracking state estimator to process both fast-rate synchronized phasor and slow rate SCADA measurements. The former are assumed to be in limited number. The latter are exploited as and when they arrive to the control center. In order to restore observability, after each execution of the tracking state estimator, forecasted SCADA measurements are used as pseudo-measurements in the next estimation. An event detection analysis allows assessing if the system is in quasi steady-state. If so, an innovation analysis is performed to identify and eliminate erroneous SCADA measurements. The system state is computed by Hachtel’s augmented matrix method. The option of exploiting time-tagged SCADA measurements is also considered. The method is illustrated through detailed dynamic simulations of a test system evolving towards voltage collapse, with and without emergency control. [less ▲]

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See detailHydraulic determination of dam releases to generate warning waves in a mountain stream: performance of an analytical kinematic wave model
Stilmant, Frédéric; Pirotton, Michel ULg; Archambeau, Pierre ULg et al

in Journal of Hydraulic Engineering (in press)

In this case study, we study the generation of warning waves with prescribed characteristics in a mountain stream. We determine which dam release will generate the desired warning wave. We solve this ... [more ▼]

In this case study, we study the generation of warning waves with prescribed characteristics in a mountain stream. We determine which dam release will generate the desired warning wave. We solve this inverse problem following a two-model approach. An analytical kinematic model is used for a preliminary design of the dam release and a detailed two-dimensional (2D) fully dynamic model is used to converge to the final solution. Although the presented case study is far from an idealized academic case, the analytical model performs well and, beyond its role for preliminary design, turns out to be of prime interest for both understanding and discussing the results of the detailed 2D model. The complex interactions between the release hydrograph, the geometry of the river and the friction formula are brought to light by the analytical model, which highlights the complementarity of both models and the usefulness of such a two-model approach. [less ▲]