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See detailH Escape in 3D: MAVEN IUVS observations of the Mars corona
Chaffin; IUVS team; Stiepen, Arnaud ULiege

Conference (2015, December)

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See detailH Escape Rates Inferred from MAVEN/IUVS Observations of the Mars Hydrogen Corona
Chaffin, Michael S.; Chaufray, Jean-Yves; Deighan, Justin et al

in AAS/Division for Planetary Sciences Meeting Abstracts (2016, October 01)

H escape oxidizes and dessicates the Mars atmosphere and surface, providing a key control on the present-day chemistry and long-term evolution of the planet. Recently, large variations in the escape rate ... [more ▼]

H escape oxidizes and dessicates the Mars atmosphere and surface, providing a key control on the present-day chemistry and long-term evolution of the planet. Recently, large variations in the escape rate of H as a function of season have been reported by several studies, making continued observation of the variation a high priority. We present escape rates derived from Mars Atmosphere and Volatile EvolutioN (MAVEN) mission Imaging UltraViolet Spectrograph (IUVS) observations of the extended atmosphere of Mars at H Lyman alpha (121.6 nm), which must be interpreted with a coupled density/radiative transfer model owing to the optically thick nature of the emission and the small fraction of H present in the corona on escaping trajectories. We recover densities, temperatures, and escape rates under the assumption of spherical symmetry for multiple periods across MAVEN's mission so far, beginning in December 2014 (escape rates ~4e8/cm2/s). We describe the observed variation and compare it with previously observed seasonal variation in retrieved H escape rates, providing a necessary input for future photochemical modeling studies and estimates of water loss from Mars over its history. [less ▲]

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See detailH NMR investigations on water dynamics during starch gels retrogradation.
Burtea, C.; Roch, A.; Pierart, Céline ULiege et al

in Magnetic Resonance Materials in Biology, Physics and Medicine (2000), 11(Suppl. 1),

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See detailThe H(3) antagonist thioperamide reveals conditioned preference for a context associated with an inactive small dose of cocaine in C57BL/6J mice
Brabant, Christian ULiege; Charlier, Yana ULiege; Quertemont, Etienne ULiege et al

in Behavioural Brain Research (2005), 160(1), 161-168

The histaminergic system has been speculated to be involved in the inhibitory control of drug reward, H-1 and H-2 antagonists having been found to potentiate conditioned place preference induced by ... [more ▼]

The histaminergic system has been speculated to be involved in the inhibitory control of drug reward, H-1 and H-2 antagonists having been found to potentiate conditioned place preference induced by morphine or cocaine. In contrast, the role of H-3 receptors in cocaine-induced place preference is still unknown. The present study tested the effects of thioperamide (0, 10 and 20 mg/kg, i.p.), an H-3 autoreceptor antagonist, on the development of a conditioned place preference induced by cocaine (0, 2 and 8 mg/kg, i.p.) in C57BL/6J mice. Thioperamide was injected 10 min before each cocaine-pairing session. The activity scores recorded on the first cocaine-pairing session were also used to test the effects of thioperamide on cocaine-induced locomotor activity. Thioperamide alone had no reinforcing effects and did not affect the conditioned place preference induced by 8 mg/kg cocaine. However, thioperamide dose-dependently revealed a conditioned place preference induced by 2 mg/kg cocaine, a dose that was inactive per se. Finally, thioperamide dose-dependently potentiated the stimulant effects of cocaine, in spite of its slight hypolocomotor effect when given alone. Our results strongly suggest that H3 antagonists potentiate the stimulant and reinforcing effects of cocaine in mice. © 2004 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved. [less ▲]

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See detailh- and a- Time-Domain Formulations for the Modelling of Thin Electromagnetic Shells
V Sabariego, Ruth ULiege; Geuzaine, Christophe ULiege; Dular, Patrick ULiege et al

in Proceedings of the 7th International Conference on Computation in Electromagnetics (CEM2008) (2008, April)

Dual time-domain magnetodynamic finite element formulations taking into account thin conductive magnetic shells are presented. The interface conditions are expressed in terms of the average flux and ... [more ▼]

Dual time-domain magnetodynamic finite element formulations taking into account thin conductive magnetic shells are presented. The interface conditions are expressed in terms of the average flux and current density together with higher-order components. [less ▲]

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See detailh- and a-Formulations for the Time-Domain Modelling of Thin Electromagnetic Shells
V Sabariego, Ruth ULiege; Geuzaine, Christophe ULiege; Dular, Patrick ULiege et al

in IET Science, Measurement & Technology (2008), 2(6), 402-408

Thin conductive magnetic shells are accounted for by means of two different time-domain magnetodynamic finite-element formulations, namely the magnetic field formulation and the magnetic vector potential ... [more ▼]

Thin conductive magnetic shells are accounted for by means of two different time-domain magnetodynamic finite-element formulations, namely the magnetic field formulation and the magnetic vector potential formulation. Both approaches are an extension of the classical linear frequency-domain thin-shell approximation. The interface conditions for the magnetic field formulation and the vector potential formulation are expressed in terms of the average current density and the average flux density, respectively, together with a number of higher-order components of these quantities. The proposed time-domain thin-shell approaches are validated by means of a 3D magnetodynamic problem. The results are shown to agree well with those obtained with a fine model, whereas the computation time is significantly reduced. [less ▲]

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See detailh- and b-conform finite element perturbation techniques for nondestructive eddy current testing
V Sabariego, Ruth ULiege; Dular, Patrick ULiege

in COMPEL (2008), 27(1), 319-327

Purpose - The aim of the present paper is to compare the performances of a finite-element perturbation technique applied either to the h- conform magnetodynamic formulation or to its b-conform counterpart ... [more ▼]

Purpose - The aim of the present paper is to compare the performances of a finite-element perturbation technique applied either to the h- conform magnetodynamic formulation or to its b-conform counterpart in the frame of nondestructive eddy-current testing problems. Design/methodology/approach - In both complementary perturbation techniques, the computation is split into a computation without defect (unperturbed problem) and a computation of the field distorsion due to its presence (perturbation problem). The unperturbed problem is conventionally solved in the complete domain. The source of the perturbation problem is then determined by the projection of the unperturbed solution in a relatively small region surrounding the defect. The discretisation of this reduced domain is chosen independently of the dimensions of the excitation probe and the specimen under study and is thus well adapted to the size of the defect. Findings - The accuracy of the perturbation model is evidenced by comparing the results of the two counterpart formulations to those achieved in the conventional way for different dimensions of the reduced domain. The size of the reduced domain increases with the size of the defect at hand. This proposed sub-domain approach eases considerably the meshing process and speeds-up the computation for different probe positions. Originality/value - At a discrete level, the impedance change due to the defect is efficiently and accurately computed by integrating only over the defect itself and a layer of elements in the reduced domain that touches its boundary. Therefore, no integration of any flux variation in the coils is required. [less ▲]

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See detailH-1-N-15 HMQC for the identification of metal-bound histidines in Cd-113-substituted Bacillus cereus zinc beta-lactamase
Damblon, Christian ULiege; Prosperi, Christelle ULiege; Lian, L. Y. et al

in Journal of the American Chemical Society (1999), 121(49), 11575-11576

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See detailH-3 RECEPTOR REGULATION OF VASCULAR GASTRIN AND SOMATOSTATIN RELEASES BY THE ISOLATED RAT STOMACH
BADO, A.; MOIZO, L.; LAIGNEAU, J. P. et al

in Yale Journal of Biology and Medicine (The) (1994), 67(3-4), 113-121

We have studied the effects of the H-3-receptor agonist (R)alpha-methylhistamine [(R)alpha-MeHA] and the H-3-receptor antagonist thioperamide (Thiop) on basal- and carbachol-stimulated vascular gastrin ... [more ▼]

We have studied the effects of the H-3-receptor agonist (R)alpha-methylhistamine [(R)alpha-MeHA] and the H-3-receptor antagonist thioperamide (Thiop) on basal- and carbachol-stimulated vascular gastrin release (GR) and somatostatin release (SR) by the isolated rat stomach. Carbachol dose-dependently stimulated and inhibited GR and SR, respectively. Maximal stimulation of GR (500 +/- 112 percent of basal; p < .01), and maximal inhibition of SR (-62 +/- 9 percent under basal; p < .01) were obtained with 1 mu M carbachol. Neither (R)alpha-MeHA nor Thiop, up to 10 mu M, affected GR. However, SR was dose-dependently enhanced by Thiop (25 +/- 8 percent for 10 mu M). Carbachol stimulation of GR was strongly inhibited by Thiop (30 +/- 7 percent for 100 nM and 73 +/- 14 percent for 1 CIM), whereas it was potentiated by (R)alpha-MeHA. Carbachol inhibition of SR was reversed by Thiop and (R)alpha-MeHA. However, the reversal effect of (R)alpha-MeHA was prevented by the CCKB/gastrin receptor antagonist PD134308. These results support H-3-receptor regulation of basal and cholinergically-stimulated GR and SR. [less ▲]

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See detailH-band thermal emission from the 19-h period planet WASP-19b
Anderson, D. R.; Gillon, Michaël ULiege; Maxted, P. F. L. et al

in Astronomy and Astrophysics (2010), 513

We present the first ground-based detection of thermal emission from an exoplanet in the H-band. Using HAWK-I on the VLT, we observed an occultation of WASP-19b by its G8V-type host star. WASP-19b is a ... [more ▼]

We present the first ground-based detection of thermal emission from an exoplanet in the H-band. Using HAWK-I on the VLT, we observed an occultation of WASP-19b by its G8V-type host star. WASP-19b is a Jupiter-mass planet with an orbital period of only 19 h, and thus, being highly irradiated, is expected to be hot. We measure an H-band occultation depth of 0.259[SUP]+0.046[/SUP][SUB]-0.044[/SUB]%, which corresponds to an H-band brightness temperature of T[SUB]H[/SUB] = 2580 ± 125 K. A cloud-free model of the planet's atmosphere, with no redistribution of energy from day-side to night-side, under predicts the planet/star flux density ratio by a factor of two. As the stellar parameters, and thus the level of planetary irradiation, are well-constrained by measurement, it is likely that our model of the planet's atmosphere is too simple. Based on data collected with the VLT/HAWKI instrument at ESO Paranal Observatory, Chile (programs 083.C-0377(A)).The photometric time-series used in this work are only available in electronic form at the CDS via anonymous ftp to cdsarc.u-strasbg.fr (130.79.128.5) or via <A href="http://cdsweb.u-strasbg.fr/cgi-bin/qcat?J/A+A/513/L3">http://cdsweb.u-strasbg.fr/cgi-bin/qcat?J/A+A/513/L3</A> [less ▲]

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See detailH.M. Enzensberger contre l'amertume du vieillard. Des "groupes vidéos" à Youtube (et retour).
Hamers, Jérémy ULiege

in Cahier Louis-Lumière (2017), 10

By interrelating several texts on the editing and juxtaposition of heterogeneous images by the German essayist and media theorist Hans Magnus Enzensberger, this article brings up to date an aesthetic link ... [more ▼]

By interrelating several texts on the editing and juxtaposition of heterogeneous images by the German essayist and media theorist Hans Magnus Enzensberger, this article brings up to date an aesthetic link between various past and contemporary media devices. The identification of this link makes it possible to free theoretical critique of the evolutionary paradigm of failure and progress (technological and political), opening it up to a set of reciprocal and non-linear insights. In this context, the use of Enzensberger texts also goes beyond any form of periodisation. By engaging a dialogue with his “Jeu de construction pour une théorie des medias” / Constituents of a Theory of the Media (1970), several essays gathered in Médiocrité et folie / Mediocrity and Madness (1988), as well as his recent autobiographical interview Erinnerungen an einen Tumult (2014), this text shows how criticism by the German writer, while constantly revitalised by the emergence of “new” objects (tabloid press, mobile video, television, Internet, smartphones), invites us to overcome any technological determinism to simultaneously consider the political potential of the first activist video groups and platforms dominating the Internet today. [less ▲]

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See detailH0LiCOW - I. H0 Lenses in COSMOGRAIL's Wellspring: program overview
Suyu, S. H.; Bonvin, V.; Courbin, F. et al

in Monthly Notices of the Royal Astronomical Society (2017), 468

Strong gravitational lens systems with time delays between the multiple images allow measurements of time-delay distances, which are primarily sensitive to the Hubble constant that is key to probing dark ... [more ▼]

Strong gravitational lens systems with time delays between the multiple images allow measurements of time-delay distances, which are primarily sensitive to the Hubble constant that is key to probing dark energy, neutrino physics and the spatial curvature of the Universe, as well as discovering new physics. We present H0LiCOW (H[SUB]0[/SUB] Lenses in COSMOGRAIL's Wellspring), a program that aims to measure H[SUB]0[/SUB] with <3.5 per cent uncertainty from five lens systems (B1608+656, RXJ1131-1231, HE 0435-1223, WFI2033-4723 and HE 1104-1805). We have been acquiring (1) time delays through COSMOGRAIL and Very Large Array monitoring, (2) high-resolution Hubble Space Telescope imaging for the lens mass modelling, (3) wide-field imaging and spectroscopy to characterize the lens environment and (4) moderate-resolution spectroscopy to obtain the stellar velocity dispersion of the lenses for mass modelling. In cosmological models with one-parameter extension to flat Λ cold dark matter, we expect to measure H[SUB]0[/SUB] to <3.5 per cent in most models, spatial curvature Ω[SUB]k[/SUB] to 0.004, w to 0.14 and the effective number of neutrino species to 0.2 (1σ uncertainties) when combined with current cosmic microwave background (CMB) experiments. These are, respectively, a factor of ˜15, ˜2 and ˜1.5 tighter than CMB alone. Our data set will further enable us to study the stellar initial mass function of the lens galaxies, and the co-evolution of supermassive black holes and their host galaxies. This program will provide a foundation for extracting cosmological distances from the hundreds of time-delay lenses that are expected to be discovered in current and future surveys. [less ▲]

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See detailH0LiCOW - II. Spectroscopic survey and galaxy-group identification of the strong gravitational lens system HE 0435-1223
Sluse, Dominique ULiege; Sonnenfeld, A.; Rumbaugh, N. et al

in Monthly Notices of the Royal Astronomical Society (2017), 470

Galaxies located in the environment or along the line of sight towards gravitational lenses can significantly affect lensing observables, and can lead to systematic errors on the measurement of H[SUB]0 ... [more ▼]

Galaxies located in the environment or along the line of sight towards gravitational lenses can significantly affect lensing observables, and can lead to systematic errors on the measurement of H[SUB]0[/SUB] from the time-delay technique. We present the results of a systematic spectroscopic identification of the galaxies in the field of view of the lensed quasar HE 0435-1223 using the W. M. Keck, Gemini and ESO-Very Large telescopes. Our new catalogue triples the number of known galaxy redshifts in the direct vicinity of the lens, expanding to 102 the number of measured redshifts for galaxies separated by less than 3 arcmin from the lens. We complement our catalogue with literature data to gather redshifts up to 15 arcmin from the lens, and search for galaxy groups or clusters projected towards HE 0435-1223. We confirm that the lens is a member of a small group that includes at least 12 galaxies, and find 8 other group candidates near the line of sight of the lens. The flexion shift, namely the shift of lensed images produced by high-order perturbation of the lens potential, is calculated for each galaxy/group and used to identify which objects produce the largest perturbation of the lens potential. This analysis demonstrates that (i) at most three of the five brightest galaxies projected within 12 arcsec of the lens need to be explicitly used in the lens models, and (ii) the groups can be treated in the lens model as an external tidal field (shear) contribution. [less ▲]

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See detailH0LiCOW - III. Quantifying the effect of mass along the line of sight to the gravitational lens HE 0435-1223 through weighted galaxy counts★
Rusu, Cristian E.; Fassnacht, Christopher D.; Sluse, Dominique ULiege et al

in Monthly Notices of the Royal Astronomical Society (2017), 467

Based on spectroscopy and multiband wide-field observations of the gravitationally lensed quasar HE 0435-1223, we determine the probability distribution function of the external convergence κ[SUB]ext[/SUB ... [more ▼]

Based on spectroscopy and multiband wide-field observations of the gravitationally lensed quasar HE 0435-1223, we determine the probability distribution function of the external convergence κ[SUB]ext[/SUB] for this system. We measure the under/overdensity of the line of sight towards the lens system and compare it to the average line of sight throughout the Universe, determined by using the CFHTLenS (The Canada France Hawaii Lensing Survey) as a control field. Aiming to constrain κ[SUB]ext[/SUB] as tightly as possible, we determine under/overdensities using various combinations of relevant informative weighting schemes for the galaxy counts, such as projected distance to the lens, redshift and stellar mass. We then convert the measured under/overdensities into a κ[SUB]ext[/SUB] distribution, using ray-tracing through the Millennium Simulation. We explore several limiting magnitudes and apertures, and account for systematic and statistical uncertainties relevant to the quality of the observational data, which we further test through simulations. Our most robust estimate of κ[SUB]ext[/SUB] has a median value κ^med_ext = 0.004 and a standard deviation σ[SUB]κ[/SUB] = 0.025. The measured σ[SUB]κ[/SUB] corresponds to 2.5 per cent relative uncertainty on the time delay distance, and hence the Hubble constant H[SUB]0[/SUB] inferred from this system. The median κ^med_ext value varies by ˜0.005 with the adopted aperture radius, limiting magnitude and weighting scheme, as long as the latter incorporates galaxy number counts, the projected distance to the main lens and a prior on the external shear obtained from mass modelling. This corresponds to just ˜0.5 per cent systematic impact on H[SUB]0[/SUB]. The availability of a well-constrained κ[SUB]ext[/SUB] makes HE 0435-1223 a valuable system for measuring cosmological parameters using strong gravitational lens time delays. [less ▲]

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See detailH0LiCOW - IV. Lens mass model of HE 0435-1223 and blind measurement of its time-delay distance for cosmology
Wong, Kenneth C.; Suyu, Sherry H.; Auger, Matthew W. et al

in Monthly Notices of the Royal Astronomical Society (2017), 465

Strong gravitational lenses with measured time delays between the multiple images allow a direct measurement of the time-delay distance to the lens, and thus a measure of cosmological parameters ... [more ▼]

Strong gravitational lenses with measured time delays between the multiple images allow a direct measurement of the time-delay distance to the lens, and thus a measure of cosmological parameters, particularly the Hubble constant, H[SUB]0[/SUB]. We present a blind lens model analysis of the quadruply imaged quasar lens HE 0435-1223 using deep Hubble Space Telescope imaging, updated time-delay measurements from the COSmological MOnitoring of GRAvItational Lenses (COSMOGRAIL), a measurement of the velocity dispersion of the lens galaxy based on Keck data, and a characterization of the mass distribution along the line of sight. HE 0435-1223 is the third lens analysed as a part of the H[SUB]0[/SUB] Lenses in COSMOGRAIL's Wellspring (H0LiCOW) project. We account for various sources of systematic uncertainty, including the detailed treatment of nearby perturbers, the parametrization of the galaxy light and mass profile, and the regions used for lens modelling. We constrain the effective time-delay distance to be D_{Δ t}= 2612_{-191}^{+208} Mpc, a precision of 7.6 per cent. From HE 0435-1223 alone, we infer a Hubble constant of H[SUB]0[/SUB] = 73.1_{-6.0}^{+5.7} km s^{-1 Mpc^{-1}} assuming a flat ΛCDM cosmology. The cosmographic inference based on the three lenses analysed by H0LiCOW to date is presented in a companion paper (H0LiCOW Paper V). [less ▲]

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See detailH0LiCOW - V. New COSMOGRAIL time delays of HE 0435-1223: H0 to 3.8 per cent precision from strong lensing in a flat ΛCDM model
Bonvin, V.; Courbin, F.; Suyu, S. H. et al

in Monthly Notices of the Royal Astronomical Society (2017), 465

We present a new measurement of the Hubble Constant H[SUB]0[/SUB] and other cosmological parameters based on the joint analysis of three multiply imaged quasar systems with measured gravitational time ... [more ▼]

We present a new measurement of the Hubble Constant H[SUB]0[/SUB] and other cosmological parameters based on the joint analysis of three multiply imaged quasar systems with measured gravitational time delays. First, we measure the time delay of HE 0435-1223 from 13-yr light curves obtained as part of the COSMOGRAIL project. Companion papers detail the modelling of the main deflectors and line-of-sight effects, and how these data are combined to determine the time-delay distance of HE 0435-1223. Crucially, the measurements are carried out blindly with respect to cosmological parameters in order to avoid confirmation bias. We then combine the time-delay distance of HE 0435-1223 with previous measurements from systems B1608+656 and RXJ1131-1231 to create a Time Delay Strong Lensing probe (TDSL). In flat Λ cold dark matter (ΛCDM) with free matter and energy density, we find H[SUB]0[/SUB] =71.9^{+2.4}_{-3.0} {km s^{-1} Mpc^{-1}} and Ω _{Λ }=0.62^{+0.24}_{-0.35}. This measurement is completely independent of, and in agreement with, the local distance ladder measurements of H[SUB]0[/SUB]. We explore more general cosmological models combining TDSL with other probes, illustrating its power to break degeneracies inherent to other methods. The joint constraints from TDSL and Planck are H[SUB]0[/SUB] = 69.2_{-2.2}^{+1.4} {km s^{-1} Mpc^{-1}}, Ω _{Λ }=0.70_{-0.01}^{+0.01} and Ω _k=0.003_{-0.006}^{+0.004} in open ΛCDM and H[SUB]0[/SUB] =79.0_{-4.2}^{+4.4} {km s^{-1} Mpc^{-1}}, Ω _de=0.77_{-0.03}^{+0.02} and w=-1.38_{-0.16}^{+0.14} in flat wCDM. In combination with Planck and baryon acoustic oscillation data, when relaxing the constraints on the numbers of relativistic species we find N[SUB]eff[/SUB] = 3.34_{-0.21}^{+0.21} in N[SUB]eff[/SUB]ΛCDM and when relaxing the total mass of neutrinos we find Σm[SUB]ν[/SUB] ≤ 0.182 eV in m[SUB]ν[/SUB]ΛCDM. Finally, in an open wCDM in combination with Planck and cosmic microwave background lensing, we find H[SUB]0[/SUB] =77.9_{-4.2}^{+5.0} {km s^{-1} Mpc^{-1}}, Ω _de=0.77_{-0.03}^{+0.03}, Ω _k=-0.003_{-0.004}^{+0.004} and w=-1.37_{-0.23}^{+0.18}. [less ▲]

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See detailH0LiCOW VII: cosmic evolution of the correlation between black hole mass and host galaxy luminosity
Ding, Xuheng; Treu, Tommaso; Suyu, Sherry H. et al

in Monthly Notices of the Royal Astronomical Society (2017), 472

Strongly lensed active galactic nuclei (AGN) provide a unique opportunity to make progress in the study of the evolution of the correlation between the mass of supermassive black holes (M_BH) and their ... [more ▼]

Strongly lensed active galactic nuclei (AGN) provide a unique opportunity to make progress in the study of the evolution of the correlation between the mass of supermassive black holes (M_BH) and their host galaxy luminosity (L[SUB]host[/SUB]). We demonstrate the power of lensing by analysing two systems for which state-of-the-art lens modelling techniques have been applied to deep Hubble Space Telescope imaging data. We use (i) the reconstructed images to infer the total and bulge luminosity of the host and (ii) published broad-line spectroscopy to estimate M_BH using the so-called virial method. We then enlarge our sample with new calibration of previously published measurements to study the evolution of the correlation out to z ˜ 4.5. Consistent with previous work, we find that without taking into account passive luminosity evolution, the data points lie on the local relation. Once the passive luminosity evolution is taken into account, we find that black holes in the more distant Universe reside in less luminous galaxies than today. Fitting this offset as M_BH/L[SUB]host[/SUB] ∝ (1 + z)[SUP]γ[/SUP], and taking into account selection effects, we obtain γ = 0.6 ± 0.1 and 0.8 ± 0.1 for the case of M_BH-L[SUB]bulge[/SUB] and M_BH-L[SUB]total[/SUB], respectively. To test for systematic uncertainties and selection effects we also consider a reduced sample that is homogeneous in data quality. We find consistent results but with considerably larger uncertainty due to the more limited sample size and redshift coverage (γ = 0.7 ± 0.4 and 0.2 ± 0.5 for M_BH-L[SUB]bulge[/SUB] and M_BH-L[SUB]total[/SUB], respectively), highlighting the need to gather more high-quality data for high-redshift lensed quasar hosts. Our result is consistent with a scenario where the growth of the black hole predates that of the host galaxy. [less ▲]

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See detailH0LiCOW. VI. Testing the fidelity of lensed quasar host galaxy reconstruction
Ding, Xuheng; Liao, Kai; Treu, Tommaso et al

in Monthly Notices of the Royal Astronomical Society (2017), 465

The empirical correlation between the mass of a supermassive black hole (M_BH) and its host galaxy properties is widely considered to be an evidence of their co-evolution. A powerful way to test the co ... [more ▼]

The empirical correlation between the mass of a supermassive black hole (M_BH) and its host galaxy properties is widely considered to be an evidence of their co-evolution. A powerful way to test the co-evolution scenario and learn about the feedback processes linking galaxies and nuclear activity is to measure these correlations as a function of redshift. Unfortunately, currently M_BH can only be estimated in active galaxies at cosmological distances. At these distances, bright active galactic nuclei (AGNs) can outshine the host galaxy, making it extremely difficult to measure the host's luminosity. Strongly lensed AGNs provide in principle a great opportunity to improve the sensitivity and accuracy of the host galaxy luminosity measurements as the host galaxy is magnified and more easily separated from the point source, provided the lens model is sufficiently accurate. In order to measure the M_BH-L correlation with strong lensing, it is necessary to ensure that the lens modelling is accurate, and that the host galaxy luminosity can be recovered to at least a precision and accuracy better than that of the typical M_BH measurement. We carry out extensive and realistic simulations of deep Hubble Space Telescope observations of lensed AGNs obtained by our collaboration. We show that the host galaxy luminosity can be recovered with better accuracy and precision than the typical uncertainty in M_BH(˜0.5 dex) for hosts as faint as 2-4 mag dimmer than the AGN itself. Our simulations will be used to estimate bias and uncertainties in the actual measurements to be presented in a future paper. [less ▲]

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See detailH1N1 vaccines in a large observational cohort of patients with inflammatory bowel disease treated with immunomodulators and biological therapy.
Rahier, Jean-Francois; Papay, Pavol; Salleron, Julia et al

in Gut (2011), 60(4), 456-62

BACKGROUND: Safety data are lacking on influenza vaccination in general and on A (H1N1)v vaccination in particular in patients with inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) receiving immmunomodulators and/or ... [more ▼]

BACKGROUND: Safety data are lacking on influenza vaccination in general and on A (H1N1)v vaccination in particular in patients with inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) receiving immmunomodulators and/or biological therapy. AIMS AND METHODS: The authors conducted a multicentre observational cohort study to evaluate symptoms associated with influenza H1N1 adjuvanted (Pandemrix, Focetria, FluvalP) and non-adjuvanted (Celvapan) vaccines and to assess the risk of flare of IBD after vaccination. Patients with stable IBD treated with immunomodulators and/or biological therapy were recruited from November 2009 until March 2010 in 12 European countries. Harvey-Bradshaw Index and Partial Mayo Score were used to assess disease activity before and 4 weeks after vaccination in Crohn's disease (CD) and ulcerative colitis (UC). Vaccination-related events up to 7 days after vaccination were recorded. RESULTS: Of 575 patients enrolled (407 CD, 159 UC and nine indeterminate colitis; 53.9% female; mean age 40.3 years, SD 13.9), local and systemic symptoms were reported by 34.6% and 15.5% of patients, respectively. The most common local and systemic reactions were pain in 32.8% and fatigue in 6.1% of subjects. Local symptoms were more common with adjuvanted (39.3%) than non-adjuvanted (3.9%) vaccines (p < 0.0001), whereas rates of systemic symptoms were similar with both types (15.0% vs 18.4%, p = 0.44). Among the adjuvanted group, Pandemrix more often induced local reactions than FluvalP and Focetria (51.2% vs 27.6% and 15.4%, p < 0.0001). Solicited adverse events were not associated with any patient characteristics, specific immunomodulatory treatment, or biological therapy. Four weeks after vaccination, absence of flare was observed in 377 patients with CD (96.7%) and 151 with UC (95.6%). CONCLUSION: Influenza A (H1N1)v vaccines are well tolerated in patients with IBD. Non-adjuvanted vaccines are associated with fewer local reactions. The risk of IBD flare is probably not increased after H1N1 vaccination. [less ▲]

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