References of "Quoilin, Sylvain"
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See detailPerformance correlations for characterizing the optimal off-design operation of an ORC power system
Dickes, Rémi ULiege; Dumont, Olivier ULiege; Quoilin, Sylvain ULiege et al

in Energy Procedia (2017), 129

The goal of this work is to develop a set of simple correlations in order to characterize the optimal off-design performance of an ORC power system. To this end, a 2kWe ORC test rig is investigated as ... [more ▼]

The goal of this work is to develop a set of simple correlations in order to characterize the optimal off-design performance of an ORC power system. To this end, a 2kWe ORC test rig is investigated as case study and a validated off-design model is used to assess the highest net power generation achievable by the system over its complete range of operating conditions. The off-design model employed is charge-sensitive (i.e. it imposes the total mass of refrigerant in the system) which permits to predict the ORC state (i.e. its pressures, temperatures, mass flow rates, subcooling, etc.) based on the system boundary conditions only. Since such modelling approach and optimization process are time-consuming, a set of simple analytical equations is developed so as to easily predict the optimal performance of the ORC systems. [less ▲]

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See detailEvaluating flexibility and adequacy in future EU power systems: model coupling and long-term forecasting
Quoilin, Sylvain ULiege; Nijs, Wouter; Zucker, Andreas

in Proceedings of the 2017 ECOS Conference (2017, July 09)

There is an increasing need for improving the representation of the power system in energy system models. Recent research has shown that the economic value of each MWh of Variable Renewable Energy (VRE ... [more ▼]

There is an increasing need for improving the representation of the power system in energy system models. Recent research has shown that the economic value of each MWh of Variable Renewable Energy (VRE) declines with growing deployment. There are two main reasons for this: (1) even with limited shares of VRE, there is a reduced utilisation of dispatchable power plants and (2) with high shares of VRE, there can be possible excess electricity that might have to be curtailed in case of insufficient storage capacity. These findings tend to be completely ignored by models with low temporal resolution and high shares of VRE. In this work, we aim at endogenizing the flexibility constraints into long-term planning models (such as the JRC-EU-TIMES model) by taking profit of Dispa-SET, a unit commitment and optimal dispatch model. The main idea is to derive generic functions from Dispa-SET that can be used by JRC-EU-TIMES and all other energy system models. In particular, we evaluate the impact of increased variable renewable power and different configurations of power systems (production, storage, EVs, demand and flexible demand) (1) on the operations of power plants and the different storage options, determining their economics such as operating hours, number of cycles and (2) on the amount of possible excess power (power that has to be curtailed, stored, or transformed. Simulations are run in Dispa-SET for a wide set of exploratory configurations of the power system in Dispa-SET. Then, a statistical analysis of the results is performed to derive generic flexibility functions. An example of the use of such flexiblity function is finally proposed for a long-term simulation in the JRC-EU-TIMES model at the European level, showing a non-negligible impact on the value of VRE, on the utilization of dispatchable generation, and on the required storage capacity. [less ▲]

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See detailImpact of Diesel generator limitations in the robust sizing of isolated hybrid Microgrids including PV and batteries
Balderrama Subieta, Sergio Luis ULiege; Canedo, Walter; Lemort, Vincent ULiege et al

in Proceedings of ECOS 2016 - the 30th International Conference on Efficiency, Cost, Optimization, Simulation and Environmental Impact of Energy Systems (2017, July)

The recent developments in PV and Lion-ion batteries along with the maturity of gensets technology to provide energy to isolated systems has fostered the use of hybrid micro-grids for rural ... [more ▼]

The recent developments in PV and Lion-ion batteries along with the maturity of gensets technology to provide energy to isolated systems has fostered the use of hybrid micro-grids for rural electrification. In this context, the optimal coupling of different technologies and the minimization of the cost to the final consumer are the objects of a number of previous researches. However, the approach usually relies on deterministic linear programming optimizations (LP), which do not allow to model certain non-linearities and limitations of the components. This paper aims at filling this gap by proposing an optimization of such system, with a detailed representation of each component. The case study of an isolated village (Las Misiones, Bolivia) with a peak electricity consumption of 9.2 MW is analyzed. The considered system comprises a diesel generator; a PV array and Li-Ion batteries whose nominal capacities should be optimized. A robust optimization tool is first proposed with an LP formulation and the net present cost as objective function. The basic model is then modified to take into account more complex operating characteristics of a gen-set operating in part-load. To that aim, the LP problem is changed into a mixed integer linear programing formulation. Results indicate that the more detailed constraints influence the final design of the system and negatively impact the total cost. [less ▲]

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See detailAggregation of flexible domestic heat pumps for the provision of reserve in power systems
Georges, Emeline ULiege; Quoilin, Sylvain ULiege; Mathieu, Sébastien ULiege et al

in Proceedings of the 30th International Conference on Efficiency, Cost, Optimisation, Simulation and Environmental Impact of Energy Systems. (2017, July)

The integration of renewable energy sources in the electricity production mix has an important impact on the management of the electricity grid, due to their intermittency. In particular, there is a ... [more ▼]

The integration of renewable energy sources in the electricity production mix has an important impact on the management of the electricity grid, due to their intermittency. In particular, there is a rising need for flexibility, both on the supply and demand sides. This paper assesses the amount of flexibility that could be reserved from a set of flexible residential heat pumps in a given geographical area. It addresses the problem of a load aggregator controlling a set of heat pumps used to provide both space-heating and domestic hot water. The flexibility of the heat pumps is unlocked in order to reduce electricity procurement costs in the day-ahead electricity market, while ensuring the provision of a predefined amount of reserve for real-time grid management. The objective of the paper is two-fold. On the one hand, an aggregation method of large sets of heat pumps based on physics-based models and random sampling techniques is proposed. On the other hand, a combined optimization problem is formulated to determine both the optimal electricity demand profile to be bought on the day-ahead market and the cost associated to the reservation of a defined amount of power. The method is applied to a set of 40000 residential heat pumps in Belgian houses. Results show that these houses can provide up to 100MW of upward reserve for 50% of the current costs. The provision of downward reserve at competitive cost is hampered by significant overconsumption. [less ▲]

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See detailDesign and experimental validation of an adaptive control law to maximize power generation of a small-scale waste heat recovery system
Hernandez Naranjo, Jairo Andrés ULiege; Desideri, Adriano ULiege; Gusev, Sergei et al

in Applied Energy (2017), 203

Increasing the energy efficiency of industrial processes is a challenge that involves, not only improving the methodologies for design and manufacturing, but optimizing performance during part-load ... [more ▼]

Increasing the energy efficiency of industrial processes is a challenge that involves, not only improving the methodologies for design and manufacturing, but optimizing performance during part-load operation and transient conditions. A well-adopted solution consists of developing waste heat recovery (WHR) systems based on Organic Rankine Cycle (ORC) power units. The highest efficiency for such cycle is obtained at low superheating values, corresponding to the situation where the system exhibits time-varying nonlinear dynamics, triggered by the fluctuating nature of the waste heat source. In this paper, an adaptive control law using the Model Predictive Control (MPC) framework is proposed. This work goes a step beyond most of the existing scientific works in the field of ORC power systems, since the MPC controller is implemented in a lab-scale prototype, and its performance compared against a gain-scheduled PID strategy. The experimental results show that the adaptive MPC outperforms the gain-scheduled PID based strategy, as it allows to accurately regulate the evaporating temperature, while keeping vapor condition at the inlet of the expander i.e., the superheating, in a safe operating range, thus increasing the net power generation. [less ▲]

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See detailUsing electric vehicles as flexible resource in power systems: A case study in the Netherlands
Beltramo, Agnese; Julea, Andreea; Refa, Nazir et al

in Proceedings of the 14th International Conference on the European Energy Market (2017, June)

The European Union (EU) is actively encouraging member countries to phase out traditional oil-fuelled cars in cities in favour of Electric Vehicles (EV) as a solution for increasing efficiency ... [more ▼]

The European Union (EU) is actively encouraging member countries to phase out traditional oil-fuelled cars in cities in favour of Electric Vehicles (EV) as a solution for increasing efficiency, contributing to ensure security of supply, decrease CO2 emission and decrease local (especially urban) air pollution coming from the transport sector. With the increasing associated charging infrastructure deployment all over European countries, the demand coming from these technologies might impact the power system and potentially offer a source of flexibility through variable charging profiles and battery storage capacity options. In the recent years, the Dutch government has adopted several policy support mechanisms for EVs uptake, which made the Netherlands the country with the highest market share of electric cars in 2015 in the EU, and the second-highest share worldwide after Norway. This country is therefore a unique case study for the analysis of EVs charging demand and impact of the power sector. The recent uptake of EVs provides a significant amount of historical data regarding charging profiles, connection times or utilisation patterns pertaining this technology. This paper aims at exploiting such data to evaluate the current and future impact of electric vehicle deployment on the power system. To that end, historical data from 2015 are used in conjunction with the Dispa-SET model, a unit commitment and power dispatch model developed at the Joint Research Centre (JRC) of the European Commission. This aims at investigating the impact of Battery Electric Vehicle (BEV) charging demand on the current Dutch power system, under different hypotheses for BEV technology penetration and renewable energy deployment (i.e. wind and solar) in the country. In addition, looking at the entire connection periods when vehicles are plugged to the grid, the battery capacity connected to the system is estimated, based on commercial BEV battery characteristics. This total capacity is finally used as variable storage unit in the model, in order to investigate the impact that Vehicle to Grid (V2G) strategies could have on the optimal use of power resources available, with particular attention to Variable Renewable Energy (VRE). [less ▲]

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See detailModelling of organic Rankine cycle power systems in off-design conditions: an experimentally-validated comparative study
Dickes, Rémi ULiege; Dumont, Olivier ULiege; Daccord, Rémi et al

in Energy (2017), 123

Because of environmental issues and the depletion of fossil fuels, the world energy sector is undergoing many changes toward increased sustainability. Among the many fields of research and development ... [more ▼]

Because of environmental issues and the depletion of fossil fuels, the world energy sector is undergoing many changes toward increased sustainability. Among the many fields of research and development, power generation from low-grade heat sources is gaining interest and the organic Rankine cycle (ORC) is seen as one of the most promising technologies for such applications. In this paper, it is proposed to perform an experimentally-validated comparison of different modelling methods for the off-design simulation of ORC-based power systems. To this end, three types of modelling paradigms (namely a constant-efficiency method, a polynomial-based method and a semi-empirical method) are compared both in terms of their fitting and extrapolation capabilities. Post-processed measurements gathered on two experimental ORC facilities are used as reference for the models calibration and evaluation. The study is first applied at a component level (i.e. each component is analysed individually) and then extended to the characterization of the entire organic Rankine cycle power systems. Benefits and limi- tations of each modelling method are discussed. The results show that semi-empirical models are the most reliable for simulating the off-design working conditions of ORC systems, while constant-efficiency and polynomial-based models are both demonstrating lack of accuracy and/or robustness. [less ▲]

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See detailFeasibility Study of PV & Li-Ion Battery Based Micro-Grids for Bolivian Off-Grid Communities
Balderrama Subieta, Sergio Luis ULiege; Tarantino, Andrea; Sabatini, Stefano et al

in Proceedings of IRES 2017 - The 11th International Renewable Energy Storage Conference (2017, March)

In the rural areas of Bolivia, where about a third of the people lacks access to reliable electricity, both a complex geography and a scattered population make the costs of extending the national grid ... [more ▼]

In the rural areas of Bolivia, where about a third of the people lacks access to reliable electricity, both a complex geography and a scattered population make the costs of extending the national grid prohibitively high. As an alternative, we evaluate the feasibility of an isolated micro-grid, composed by Li-ion batteries and Photovoltaic (PV) panels, for a Bolivian remote community living without access to electricity. We surveyed two remote rural villages to assess the potential electricity consumption patterns of the population once provided access to electricity. We estimated the average demand profile using the tool LoadProGen, and we collected local techno-economic and solar irradiation data of the zone. We employed such data as inputs in a robust linear programming-based optimization tool to determine the capacities of the Li-ion battery bank and the PV array thatminimize the net present cost (NPC) of the system. [less ▲]

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See detailFeasibility Study of PV & Li-Ion Battery Based Micro-Grids for Bolivian Off-Grid Communities
Balderrama Subieta, Sergio Luis ULiege; Tarantino, Andrea; Sabatini, Stefano et al

in Proceedings of IRES 2017 - The 11th International Renewable Energy Storage Conference (2017, March)

In the rural areas of Bolivia, where about a third of the people lacks access to reliable electricity, both a complex geography and a scattered population make the costs of extending the national grid ... [more ▼]

In the rural areas of Bolivia, where about a third of the people lacks access to reliable electricity, both a complex geography and a scattered population make the costs of extending the national grid prohibitively high. As an alternative, we evaluate the feasibility of an isolated micro-grid, composed by Li-ion batteries and Photovoltaic (PV) panels, for a Bolivian remote community living without access to electricity. We surveyed two remote rural villages to assess the potential electricity consumption patterns of the population once provided access to electricity. We estimated the average demand profile using the tool LoadProGen, and we collected local techno-economic and solar irradiation data of the zone. We employed such data as inputs in a robust linear programming-based optimization tool to determine the capacities of the Li-ion battery bank and the PV array thatminimize the net present cost (NPC) of the system. [less ▲]

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See detailThe importance of open data and software: Is energy research lagging behind?
Pfenninger, Stefan; DeCariolis, Joseph; Hirth, Lion et al

in Energy Policy (2017)

Energy policy often builds on insights gained from quantitative energy models and their underlying data. As climate change mitigation and economic concerns drive a sustained transformation of the energy ... [more ▼]

Energy policy often builds on insights gained from quantitative energy models and their underlying data. As climate change mitigation and economic concerns drive a sustained transformation of the energy sector, transparent and well-founded analyses are more important than ever. We assert that models and their associated data must be openly available to facilitate higher quality science, greater productivity through less duplicated effort, and a more effective science-policy boundary. There are also valid reasons why data and code are not open: ethical and security concerns, unwanted exposure, additional workload, and institutional or personal inertia. Overall, energy policy research ostensibly lags behind other fields in promoting more open and reproducible science. We take stock of the status quo and propose actionable steps forward for the energy research community to ensure that it can better engage with decision-makers and continues to deliver robust policy advice in a transparent and reproducible way. [less ▲]

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See detailApplying the Dispa-SET model on the Western Balkans power systems
Pavičević, Matija; Tomić, Ivan; Quoilin, Sylvain ULiege et al

in Proceedings of the 2017 SDEWES Conference (2017)

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See detailRule-based control and optimization of a hybrid solar microgrid for rural electrification and heat supply in sub-Saharan Africa
Altés Buch, Queralt ULiege; Orosz, Matthew; Quoilin, Sylvain ULiege et al

in Proceedings of the 30th International Conference on Efficiency, Cost, Optimization, Simulation and Environmental Impact of Energy Systems (ECOS) (2017)

This work aims at developing, optimizing and controlling a hybrid solar microgrid for rural electrification and heat supply in sub-Saharan Africa. The considered system includes PV panels, Parabolic ... [more ▼]

This work aims at developing, optimizing and controlling a hybrid solar microgrid for rural electrification and heat supply in sub-Saharan Africa. The considered system includes PV panels, Parabolic Trough Collectors, ORC and LPG generator, as well as battery and thermal energy storage. A special focus is paid to the co-optimization of the thermal and electrical load satisfaction since it can improve the overall energy efficiency of the system. To that end, different sub-component models are developed: - A building model to predict thermal loads of a health clinic in rural communities of Lesotho. - A microgrid model built by interconnecting the subcomponent models. - A rule-based control strategy, dispatching heat and electrical powers of each component to cover the demand while minimizing the fuel consumption. - A particle-swarm optimization of the microgrid under different cost assumptions. For the studied community of Ha Nkau in Lesotho, the determined optimal system infrastructure is composed of PV (66 kW) and batteries (262 kWh), and the optimum control strategy achieves a levelized cost of electricity of 0.203 USD/kWh. Fuel consumption is mainly due to the burner, which supplies most of the thermal load together with CSP (66 m2) and TES (86 kWh). [less ▲]

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See detailModelling Future EU Power Systems Under High Shares of Renewables: The Dispa-SET 2.1 open-source model
Quoilin, Sylvain ULiege; Hidalgo Gonzalez, Ignacio; Zucker, Andreas

Book published by Publications Office of the European Union (2017)

The increase in the share of renewable sources leads to new needs in terms of flexibility. This evolution of the power system requires proper simulation tools. The Dispa-SET model simulates with a high ... [more ▼]

The increase in the share of renewable sources leads to new needs in terms of flexibility. This evolution of the power system requires proper simulation tools. The Dispa-SET model simulates with a high level of detail the short-term operation of large-scale power systems, solving the unit commitment and optimal dispatch problems. The model is an open-source tool and comes with an open dataset for testing purposes. It can therefore be freely re-used or modified to fit the needs of a particular case study. [less ▲]

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See detailNonlinear identification and control of Organic Rankine Cycle systems using sparse polynomial models
Hernandez, Andres; Ruiz, Fredy; Ionescu, Clara et al

in Proceedings of the 2016 IEEE Conference on Control Applications (CCA) Part of 2016 IEEE Multi-Conference on Systems and Contro (2016, September 19)

Development of a first principles model of a system is not only a time- and cost- consuming task, but often leads to model structures which are not directly usable to design a controller using current ... [more ▼]

Development of a first principles model of a system is not only a time- and cost- consuming task, but often leads to model structures which are not directly usable to design a controller using current available methodologies. In this paper we use a sparse identification procedure to obtain a nonlinear polynomial model. Since this is a NP-hard problem, a relaxed algorithm is employed to accelerate its convergence speed. The obtained model is further used inside the nonlinear Extended Prediction Self-Adaptive control (NEPSAC) approach to Non- linear Model Predictive Control (NMPC), which replaces the complex nonlinear optimization problem by a simpler iterative quadratic programming procedure. An organic Rankine cycle system, characterized for presenting nonlinear time-varying dynamics, is used as benchmark to illustrate the effectiveness of the proposed combined strategies. [less ▲]

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See detailSteady-state and dynamic validation of a small scale waste heat recovery system using the ThermoCycle Modelica library
Desideri, Adriano ULiege; Hernandez, Andres; Gusev, Sergei et al

in Energy (2016), 115

The organic Rankine cycle (ORC) power system has been recognized as a promising technology for micro power applications. In this context, physics-based dynamic models can constitute a significant tool for ... [more ▼]

The organic Rankine cycle (ORC) power system has been recognized as a promising technology for micro power applications. In this context, physics-based dynamic models can constitute a significant tool for the further development of the technology, allowing to evaluate and optimize response times during transients, or to implement and test innovative control strategies. In this contribution, the dynamic model of an ORC power unit based on the ThermoCycle Modelica library is validated against steady-state and transient experimental results from an 11 kWel stationary ORC system. The simulation results are in good agreement with the measurements, both in steady-state and in transient conditions. The validated library is readily usable to investigate demanding dynamics-based problems for low capacity power systems. [less ▲]

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See detailExperimental results for hydrocarbon refrigerant vaporization in brazed plate heat exchangers at high pressure
Desideri, Adriano ULiege; Rhyl Kaern, Martin; Ommen Schmidt, Torben et al

in Proceedings of the 16th International Refrigeration and Air Conditioning Conference at Purdue (2016, July 11)

In recent years the interest in small capacity organic Rankine cycle (ORC) power systems for harvesting low quality waste thermal energy from industrial processes has been steadily growing. Micro ORC ... [more ▼]

In recent years the interest in small capacity organic Rankine cycle (ORC) power systems for harvesting low quality waste thermal energy from industrial processes has been steadily growing. Micro ORC systems are normally equipped with brazed plate heat exchangers which allows for efficient heat transfer with a compact design. An accurate prediction of the heat transfer process characterizing these devices is required from the design phase to the development of model- based control strategies. The current literature is lacking experimental data and validated correlations for vaporization of organic fluids at typical working conditions of ORC systems for low temperature waste heat recovery (WHR) applications. Based on these premises, a novel test-rig has been recently designed and built at the Technical University of Denmark to simulate the evaporating condition occurring in a small capacity ORC power unit. In this contribution the preliminary experimental results obtained from the first experimental campaign carried out on the rig are reported. HFC-134a was selected as working fluid. The experiments were carried out at saturation temperature of 60, 70 and 80 ○C and inlet and outlet qualities ranging between 0.01-0.3 and 0.5-0.95 respectively. The heat flux ranged between 19.4 and 43.1 kWm−2. The results are presented in terms of refrigerant side heat transfer coefficient and pressure drop. The heat transfer coefficient showed significant sensitivity to the saturation temperature and was characterized by a decreasing trend with respect to the mean evaporator quality. The frictional pressure drop showed a linear dependence on the mean quality value and increased as the saturation temperature decreased. The experimental heat transfer coefficients were compared with a well-known correlation for nucleate boiling which is able to predict the results with an accuracy of around 20 %. [less ▲]

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See detailTechno-economic evaluation of self-consumption with PV/battery systems under different regulation schemes
Quoilin, Sylvain ULiege; Zucker, Andreas

in Proceedings of the 29th international conference on Efficiency, Cost, Optimisation, Simulation and Environmental Impact of Energy Systems (2016, July)

The recent disclosure of new and innovative home battery systems has been seen by many as a catalyser for a solar energy revolution, and has created high expectations in the sector. Many observers have ... [more ▼]

The recent disclosure of new and innovative home battery systems has been seen by many as a catalyser for a solar energy revolution, and has created high expectations in the sector. Many observers have predicted an uptake of combined PV/Battery units, which, could ultimately disconnect from the grid and lead to autonomous homes or mini-grids. However, most of the comments originating from social media, blogs or press articles lack proper cost evaluation and realistic simulations. This work aims at bridging this gap by simulating self-consumption in different EU countries, for different household profiles with or without battery. Results indicate that (1) Although decreasing at a fast pace, the cost of domestic Li-Ion storage is most likely still too high for a large-scale market uptake in Europe; (2) PV incentives based on net metering are not favourable to home batteries; (3) Home battery profitability and future uptake mainly depend on the indirect self-consumption subsidies provided by the structure of the retail prices; (4) These systems do not allow residential consumers to go off-grid. They only allow for a maximum self-sufficiency ratio close to 70%. [less ▲]

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See detailORCmKit: an open-source library for organic Rankine cycle modelling and analysis
Dickes, Rémi ULiege; Ziviani, Davide; van den Broek, Martjin et al

in Proceedings of ECOS 2016 (2016, June 20)

As for many other technologies, modelling and simulation of organic Rankine cycles (ORCs) are crucial for design, optimization and control purposes. However, model development is often time consuming and ... [more ▼]

As for many other technologies, modelling and simulation of organic Rankine cycles (ORCs) are crucial for design, optimization and control purposes. However, model development is often time consuming and the scientific community lacks of open-access tools to study ORC systems. For these reasons, researchers from the universities of Liège and Ghent in Belgium gathered their knowledge and created “ORC modelling Kit” (ORCmKit), an open-source library dedicated to the steady-state simulation and analysis of organic Rankine cycles. Both component-level and cycle-level models are provided and different ORC architectures can be simulated. For each of the main component of ORC systems, different models are available with increasing complexity which allows a wide range of modelling possibilities. In order to remain general and accessible to as many people as possible, three widely used programming languages are covered within ORCmKit, i.e. Matlab, Python and EES (Engineering Equation Solver). Besides source codes, ORCmKit also includes calibration tools for empirical and semi-empirical models as well as a complete documentation for ease of use. [less ▲]

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