References of "Everaert, Nadia"
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See detailCharacterization of fructans and dietary fibre profiles in raw and steamed vegetables
Kalala Bolokango, Gaetan ULiege; Kambashi Mutiaka, Bienvenu; Everaert, Nadia ULiege et al

in International Journal of Food Sciences & Nutrition (in press)

Dietary fiber (DF) has many positive effects on human health associated with its functionality in the gastrointestinal tract. These benefits vary according to the type of DF. Vegetables can be a natural ... [more ▼]

Dietary fiber (DF) has many positive effects on human health associated with its functionality in the gastrointestinal tract. These benefits vary according to the type of DF. Vegetables can be a natural source of DF in the diet. However, to provide adequate nutritional advice, the content and profile of their various DF types must be characterized. This study aimed to determine the DF profile of 29 vegetables cultivated in Wallonia (Belgium) and the impact of steaming on these profiles. Using a combination of enzymatic, gravimetric and chromatographic methods, fructans, total dietary fiber (TDF), low- and high-molecular-weight soluble dietary fiber (SDF), and insoluble dietary fiber (IDF) were analyzed. Results show that the DF content varies considerably among the 29 investigated vegetable varieties and species, but the influence of steaming is limited to a shift from IDF to high-molecular-weight SDF for 18 of the 29 tested vegetables, while fructans are preserved with not actual reduction in the DP. [less ▲]

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See detailA review on early gut maturation and colonization in pigs, including biological and dietary factors affecting gut homeostasis
Everaert, Nadia ULiege; Van Cruchten, Steven; Weström, Björn et al

in Animal Feed Science & Technology (in press)

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See detailReview on the effects of potential prebiotics on controlling intestinal enteropathogens Salmonella and Escherichia coli in pig production
Tran, Thi Hanh Tham ULiege; Everaert, Nadia ULiege; Bindelle, Jérôme ULiege

in Journal of Animal Physiology and Animal Nutrition (2018), 102

Salmonella enterica serotypes (Salmonella sp.) are the second cause of bacterial foodborne zoonoses in humans after campylobacteriosis. Pork is the third most important cause for outbreak-associated ... [more ▼]

Salmonella enterica serotypes (Salmonella sp.) are the second cause of bacterial foodborne zoonoses in humans after campylobacteriosis. Pork is the third most important cause for outbreak-associated salmonellosis, and colibacillosis is the most important disease in piglets and swine. Attachment to host cells, translocation of effector proteins into host cells, invasion and replication in tissues are the vital virulence steps of these pathogens that help them to thrive in the intestinal environment and invade tissues. Feed contamination is an important source for Salmonella infection in pig production. Many on-farm feeding strategies intervene to avoid the introduction of pathogens onto the farm by contaminated feeds or to reduce infection pressure when pathogens are present. Among the latter, prebiotics could be effective at protecting against these enteric bacterial pathogens. Nowadays, a wide range of molecules can potentially serve as prebiotics. Here, we summarize the prevalence of Salmonella sp. and Escherichia coli in pigs, understanding of the mechanisms by which pathogens can cause disease, the feed related to pathogen contamination in pigs and detail the mechanisms on which prebiotics are likely to act in order to fulfil their protective action against these pathogens in pig production. Many different mechanisms involve the inhibition of Salmonella and E. coli by prebiotics such as coating the host surface, modulation of intestinal ecology, downregulating the expression of adhesin factors or virulence genes, reinforcing the host immune system. [less ▲]

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See detailEffet de la cuisson sur le profil en fibres de quelques légumes tropicaux
Kalala Bolokango, Gaetan ULiege; KAMBASHI, Bienvenu; Everaert, Nadia ULiege et al

Poster (2017, December 13)

Outre le monde occidental, les pays africains dont la population a souffert de malnutrition intra-utérine sont également exposés au fléau de l’obésité à l’âge adulte en raison d’effets de programmation de ... [more ▼]

Outre le monde occidental, les pays africains dont la population a souffert de malnutrition intra-utérine sont également exposés au fléau de l’obésité à l’âge adulte en raison d’effets de programmation de long terme induits par les carences dans le jeune âge. La consommation de fibres alimentaires (DF) demeure indispensable pour la modulation du microbiote intestinal afin de prévenir cette maladie et les pathologies associées. Les légumes et les fruits sont des principales sources naturelles de DF. . En Afrique tropicale humide et sub-humide, les légumes feuilles sont fortement consommés par les populations rurales, tandis que les populations urbaines modifient leur régime alimentaire en l’ « occidentalisant ». Afin de mieux comprendre comment les changements alimentaires modifient les modes de consommation des fibres alimentaires, face à la déficience d’information dans la littérature à ce sujet, il convient de caractériser le profil en fibres de légumes méconnus et l’impact de la cuisson sur celui-ci. [less ▲]

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See detailImpact of 3’-­‐sialyllactose and Bifidobacterium crudilactis on infant feces microbial composition and virulence modulation of Escherichia coli O157:H7, using the SHIME® gastrointes6nal model
Bondue, Pauline ULiege; Lebrun, Sarah ULiege; Crevecoeur, Sébastien ULiege et al

Poster (2017, June)

Bifidobacterium crudilactis, a bacterial species from bovine origin, growths on bovine milk oligosaccharides (BMO). Cell free spent media (CFSM) from B. crudilactis and 3’-sialyllactose (3’SL), a major ... [more ▼]

Bifidobacterium crudilactis, a bacterial species from bovine origin, growths on bovine milk oligosaccharides (BMO). Cell free spent media (CFSM) from B. crudilactis and 3’-sialyllactose (3’SL), a major BMO, modulated Escherichia coli O157:H7 virulence gene expressiona. In this study, the SHIME® gastrointestinal model was inoculated with 4 different treatments: 3’SL (ttm1), B. crudilactis (ttm2), 3’SL and B. crudilactis (ttm3) and CFSM from 3’SL and B. crudilactis culture (ttm4). In each section of the colon, samples were collected and analysed for short chain fatty acid (SCFA) concentration using HPLC, microbial populations using 16S rDNA metagenetic analysis and correlated with E. coli O157:H7 virulence gene expression. The results showed that SCFA levels were stable during the experiments. Metagenetic analysis showed a microbial diversity in transverse (TC) and descending colon (DC) close to feces, dominated by Bacteroides, Prevotella and Fusobacterium, while the ascending colon (AC) showed a different microbial diversity dominated by Veillonella. Ttm4 and ttm2 induced mainly a down-regulation of virulence genes: fliC in DC with ttm4, and luxS, stx1, qseA in AC, DC or TC with ttm2. Ttm1 also showed a down-regulation of fliC in DC, similar to the one observed with ttm4, but this was associated with an up-regulation of fliC and stx1 in AC or TC. Finally, ttm3 showed slight upregulation of ler, fliC and qseA in AC. These results show that ttm4 and ttm2 might have a positive effect against virulence expression of E. coli O157:H7. However, this trend has to be validated with the further replicates on the SHIME® system. [less ▲]

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See detailEffect of feed enzymes on digestibility and growth in weaned pigs: A systematic review and meta-analysis
Torres-Pitarch, Alberto; Hermans, David; Manzanilla, Edgar Garcia et al

in Animal Feed Science & Technology (2017), 233

Supplementation of post-weaning diets with exogenous enzymes has been suggested to control post-weaning syndrome, by compensating for the under-developed endogenous enzyme secretory capacity and ... [more ▼]

Supplementation of post-weaning diets with exogenous enzymes has been suggested to control post-weaning syndrome, by compensating for the under-developed endogenous enzyme secretory capacity and increasing nutrient digestibility in newly weaned pigs. The effect of in-feed enzymes in improving gut maturation, growth and/or health in weaned piglets is not always consistent. A systematic review and a meta-analysis were therefore conducted to determine which exogenous enzymes are most consistent in improving piglet growth and digestibility when supplemented to post-weaning diets. The mean difference effect of enzyme supplementation on growth and digestibility of dry matter (DM), gross energy (GE), crude protein (CP), and P digestibility was calculated for each study and this was used as the effect size estimate in the meta-analysis. The impact of feed enzyme supplementation on intestinal health and bone mineralization was also discussed where information was available in the literature. From a total of 90 studies included in the metaanalysis, G:F was improved in 55, remained un-changed in 28 and deteriorated in 7, in response to enzyme supplementation. Average daily gain, average daily feed intake (ADFI) and G:F was improved when phytase was supplemented in the diet. Phosphorous digestibility was increased with phytase supplementation while GE digestibility was reduced. Dietary phytase supplementation increased bone mineralization in pigs fed diets with a reduced Pcontent. Supplementation with multi-enzyme complexes increased DM and CP digestibility. In conclusion, the most consistent improvement in piglet growth, P digestibility and bone mineralization were found due to exogenous phytase supplementation. Supplementation with xylanase alone or in combination with β-glucanase had inconsistent effects on piglet growth and nutrient digestibility. The most consistent improvements in growth and nutrient digestibility due to supplementation with multi-enzymes complexes were found when mannanase and/or protease were included in the complex. [less ▲]

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See detailModulation of piglets’ microbiota: differential effects by a high wheat bran maternal diet during gestation and lactation
Leblois, Julie ULiege; Massart, Sébastien ULiege; Li, Bing et al

in Scientific Reports (2017)

Reaching a beneficial intestinal microbiota early in life is desirable for piglets, as microbiota will impact their future health. One strategy to achieve this is the addition of prebiotics to sows’ diet ... [more ▼]

Reaching a beneficial intestinal microbiota early in life is desirable for piglets, as microbiota will impact their future health. One strategy to achieve this is the addition of prebiotics to sows’ diet, as their microbiota will be transferred. Transmission of microbiota to the offspring occurs at birth and during lactation but a transfer might also occur during gestation. The objectives of this study were to determine whether and when (before and/or after birth) a maternal transfer of the microbiota occurs, and to observe the impact of wheat bran (WB) in sows’ diet on their faecal microbiota, their offspring’s microbiota and fermentation profile. Sequencing was performed on DNA extracted from umbilical cord blood, meconium, sows’ faeces and piglets’ colon content. Short-chain fatty acid production was determined in piglets’ distal gut. Different bacteria (mostly Proteobacteria, followed by Firmicutes) were found in the umbilical cord blood, suggesting a maternal transfer occurring already during gestation. Less butyrate was produced in the caecum of WB piglets and a lower concentration of valerate was observed in all intestinal parts of WB piglets. Maternal wheat bran supplementation affected microbiota of sows and piglets differently. [less ▲]

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See detailAllelic variation in TLR4 is linked to resistance to Salmonella Enteritidis infection in chickens.
Li, Peng; Wang, Huihua; Zhao, Xingwang et al

in Poultry Science (2017)

Salmonella Enteritidis (SE) is a foodborne pathogen that negatively affects both animal and human health. Polymorphisms of the TLR4 gene may affect recognition by Toll-like receptor 4 (TLR4) of bacterial ... [more ▼]

Salmonella Enteritidis (SE) is a foodborne pathogen that negatively affects both animal and human health. Polymorphisms of the TLR4 gene may affect recognition by Toll-like receptor 4 (TLR4) of bacterial lipopolysaccharide (LPS), leading to differences in host resistance to pathogenic infections. The present study has investigated polymorphic loci of chicken TLR4 (ChTLR4) in ten chicken breeds, electrostatic potentials of mutant structures of TLR4, and a linkage analysis between allelic variation and survival ratio to infection with SE in specific-pathogen-free (SPF) White Leghorns. A total of 19 Single Nucleotide Polymorphisms (SNPs), of which 10 were novel, were found in chicken breeds. Seven newly identified amino acid variants (C68G, G674A, G782A, A896T, T959G, T986A, and A1104C) and previously reported important mutations (G247A, G1028A, C1147T, and A1832G) were demonstrated in the extracellular domain of the ChTLR4 gene. Significant changes in surface electrostatic potential of the ectodomain of TLR4, built by homology modeling, were observed at the Glu83Lys (G247A), Arg298Ser (A896T), Ser368Arg (A1104C), and Gln611Arg (A1832G) substitutions. Linkage analysis showed that one polymorphic locus G247A of TLR4 gene, common in all breeds examined, was significantly associated with increased resistance to SE in SPF White Leghorns chicks (log-rank P-value = 0.04). The genotypes from A1832G SNPs did not show statistically significant survival differences. This study has provided the first direct evidence that G247A substitution in ChTLR4 is associated with increased resistance to Salmonella Enteritidis. [less ▲]

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See detailAlpha-lipoic acid impairs body weight gain of young broiler chicks via modulating peripheral AMPK.
Wang, Yufeng; Everaert, Nadia ULiege; Song, Zhigang et al

in Comparative Biochemistry and Physiology Part A : Molecular & Integrative Physiology (2017), 211

In mammals, the AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK) pathways in the central and peripheral tissues coordinately integrate inputs from multiple sources to regulate energy balance. The present study was ... [more ▼]

In mammals, the AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK) pathways in the central and peripheral tissues coordinately integrate inputs from multiple sources to regulate energy balance. The present study was aimed to explore the potential role of hepatic AMPK in the energy homeostasis of broiler chickens. Diets with 0, 0.05% or 0.1% alpha-lipoic acid (alpha-LA), a known AMPK inhibitor were provided to broiler chicks for 7days. As a result, alpha-LA supplementation decreased the relative growth rate of broiler chicks. Hepatic AMPKalpha2 mRNA levels were significantly upregulated by dietary alpha-LA, in concert with the increased phosphorylated AMPKalpha protein levels. In addition, hepatic FAS mRNA levels together with the malonyl-CoA to total CoA ester ratio were reduced by alpha-LA supplementation. Moreover, the hepatic phosphorylated glycogen synthase levels were increased resulting in a markedly decreased hepatic glycogen content. In conclusion, dietary alpha-LA supplementation decreased the in vivo hepatic glycogenesis and lipogenesis via stimulating hepatic AMPKalpha mRNA levels and the phosphorylated gene product. The stimulatory effect of alpha-LA on hepatic AMPK mRNA and pAMPKalpha protein levels together with our previous observations regarding its inhibitory effect on hypothalamic AMPK may have altered the energy balance and hence impaired body weight gain of broiler chicks. [less ▲]

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See detailAttenuating Effect of Zinc and Vitamin E on the Intestinal Oxidative Stress Induced by Silver Nanoparticles in Broiler Chickens.
Song, Zhigang; Lv, Jiadong; Sheikhahmadi, Ardashir et al

in Biological Trace Element Research (2017)

Silver nanoparticles (AgNPs) have been increasingly used as antimicrobial and disinfectant. However, intestinal model studies have shown that AgNPs induce oxidative stress. Hence, this study aims to ... [more ▼]

Silver nanoparticles (AgNPs) have been increasingly used as antimicrobial and disinfectant. However, intestinal model studies have shown that AgNPs induce oxidative stress. Hence, this study aims to investigate the effects of dietary supplemental zinc (Zn) and vitamin E (VE; alpha-tocopherol acetate) on attenuating AgNP-induced intestinal oxidative stress in broiler chickens. The chickens were divided into two groups as follows: (1) control group fed with a corn-soybean meal basal diet and (2) nano group, received drinking water containing 1000 mg/kg AgNPs. All the nano-exposed birds were divided into six dietary treatment groups, namely, the basal diets supplemented with (1) 60 mg/kg Zn as ZnSO4, (2) 120 mg/kg Zn, (3) 100 mg/kg VE, (4) 200 mg/kg VE, (5) 60 mg/kg Zn and 100 mg/kg VE, and (6) 120 mg/kg Zn and 200 mg/kg VE. Results showed that the AgNPs significantly reduced the body weights of the broilers after 42 days of oral administration of AgNPs (P < 0.05), and this effect was not alleviated by any of the dietary treatments. The activity of superoxide dismutase (CuZn-SOD) increased in all the AgNP-treated birds (P < 0.05); however, CuZn-SOD did not increase in birds fed with basal diet supplemented with 200 mg/kg VE. In this treatment, the VE exerted an antioxidant effect to prevent the activation of the CuZn-SOD enzyme. Furthermore, supplementing Zn increased the activities of catalase and glutathione peroxidase in the jejunal mucosa (P < 0.05), which were accompanied with increased malondialdehyde levels (P < 0.05) in the broilers. AgNP exposure resulted in a significant messenger RNA (mRNA) upregulation of toll-like receptor 4 (TLR4) and TLR2-1 in the jejunal mucosa (P < 0.05). However, supplemental ZnVE did not reduce TLRs' mRNA expression, except for the diminished TLR2-1 mRNA levels in birds fed with basal diet supplemented with 120 mg/kg Zn and 200 mg/kg VE. We concluded that although dietary Zn and VE supplementation did not attenuate growth depression effect of AgNP, it however attenuates intestinal oxidative stress in AgNP-treated broiler chickens. [less ▲]

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See detailLe profil en fibres alimentaires de légume modifie leur fermentation intestinale et la production d’acides gras à chaine courte dans modèle in vitro humain
Kalala Bolokango, Gaetan ULiege; Kambashi Mutiaka, Bienvenu ULiege; Njeumen, Patrick et al

Poster (2016, December 01)

La modulation du microbiote intestinal induite par les fibres alimentaires (DF)a des conséquences positives sur la santé, notamment sur l’obésité et ses comorbidités. La nature et l’ampleur des ... [more ▼]

La modulation du microbiote intestinal induite par les fibres alimentaires (DF)a des conséquences positives sur la santé, notamment sur l’obésité et ses comorbidités. La nature et l’ampleur des changements dépendent du type de fibres.Les légumes sont des sources privilégiées de DF, certaines espèces et variétés fournissant davantage de DF solubles (SDF), d’autres étant plus riches en DF insolubles (IDF). Contrairement aux SDF, les IDF sont souvent considérées comme peu fermentescibles, ne contribuant que faiblement à une modulation de l’écophysiologie intestinale. En opposition à cette hypothèse, pour explorer si l’impact potentiel sur la santé intestinale des légumes varie suivant leur nature, des légumes présentant des teneurs et des profils en DF différents ont été comparés dans un modèle in vitro de fermentation colique. [less ▲]

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See detailImpact of cooking and species on intestinal fermentation patterns of vegetables in a humanized in vitro model of the gastro-intestinal tract
Kalala Bolokango, Gaetan ULiege; Kambashi Mutiaka, Bienvenu ULiege; Njeumen Lemotio, Georges Patrick ULiege et al

Poster (2016, June 21)

Obesity and associated pathologies have dramatic consequences on patients’lives as well as high societal costs. Because of the role of intestinal dysbiosis and microbiota make-up on the pathogenesis of ... [more ▼]

Obesity and associated pathologies have dramatic consequences on patients’lives as well as high societal costs. Because of the role of intestinal dysbiosis and microbiota make-up on the pathogenesis of obesity, several strategies such as eating prebiotics and dietary fibre supplements are being investigated to reshape the intestinal microbial communities of obese patients. Beyond supplement, dietary fibre is supplied through plant ingredients in the meals. In the framework of the multidisciplinary research project Food4Gut, the use of vegetables rich in specific targeted dietary fiber, namely fructans, is being scrutinized for its ability to induce positive changes in the intestinal ecophysiology. Because expected effect might differ according the content in dietary fibre and fructans, the soluble:insoluble ratio, as well as the cooking of the vegetables, the fermentation patterns of several vegetables are being investigated in an dual in vitro model combining enzymatic hydrolysis to an in vitro fermentation step using faecal inoculums from humans, to evaluate the performance of gut microbiota, modulation of metabolic functions. Six vegetables were sampled in triplicates (N=3) and steamed for 20 to 30 min.: Jerusalem artichoke, salsify, asparagus, pumpkin, fennel and swede. They were chosen because they display a variety of contents in fructans, soluble (SDF) and insoluble dietaryfibre (IDF). Steamed vegetable samplesand burgers from local fast food restaurants (negative control) were hydrolyzed in vitro why porcine pepsin and pancreatin to mimic digestion in the upper gut and indigested fiber residues were recover using a 6kDa dialysis membrane.Subsequently, in vitro fermentation is being run with independent fecal inoculums from obese and lean patients (N=4). Fermentation kinetics over 24h as well as short-chain fatty acid production and profiles will be compared according to the individual donor and the vegetable species and multivariate analysis will be used to explore the relationships between donor, vegetable species and composition and fermentation patterns. [less ▲]

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See detailEffects of new potential prebiotics on Salmonella Thyphimurium in pigs
Tran, Thi Hanh Tham; Everaert, Nadia ULiege; Boudry, Christelle et al

Conference (2016, April 15)

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See detailImpact of wheat bran supplementation to sows on their milk quality, their performances and their progeny’s
Leblois, Julie ULiege; Bindelle, Jérôme ULiege; Dehareng, Frédéric et al

Conference (2016, April 15)

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See detailPrebiotic potential of novel carbohydrates in an in vitro co-inoculation fermentation model of the bacteria isolated from pig intestine and Salmonella
Tran, Thi Hanh Tham ULiege; Boudry, Christelle; Everaert, Nadia ULiege et al

in Journal of Animal Science (2016), 94(7S3), 58-61

Innovative plant biomass fractionation methods produce new feed additives that could modulate pig intestinal microbial communities. Such novel indigestible carbohydrates (CHO) were investigated for their ... [more ▼]

Innovative plant biomass fractionation methods produce new feed additives that could modulate pig intestinal microbial communities. Such novel indigestible carbohydrates (CHO) were investigated for their prebiotic potential and their influence on Salmonella Typhimurium in a co-inoculation in vitro fermentation model of pig intestines. Inulin, cellobiose, pectic oligosaccharides (POS), isomalto-oligosaccharides (IMO), xylooligosaccharides (XOS), and gluconic acid (GLU) were fermented for 72 h by a bacterial fecal inoculum from pigs in an in vitro model in the presence of Salmonella. Gluconic acid was the fastest fermenting CHO followed by inulin and IMO (P = 0.01). After 6 h, cellobiose yielded the highest lactate molar ratio (0.484). Pectic oligosaccharides fermented more slowly. Xylooligosaccharides and GLU were little fermented (150 and 175 mg short-chain fatty acids/g after 24 h). Nonetheless, GLU yielded the highest butyrate molar ratio of all CHO (0.290 at 12 h; P < 0.01). Although Salmonella counts did not differ, inulin and IMO displayed prebiotical properties, because they supported the highest Lactobacillus and Bifidobacterium populations after 12 and 24 h of fermentation (7.38 to 8.86 log cfu/mL; P < 0.01). Cellobiose and GLU scored well for Lactobacillus too but poorly supported Bifidobacterium (6.41 to 6.92 log cfu/mL; P < 0.01). It is concluded that IMO seems the most promising prebiotic, but owing to their specific fermentation patterns, cellobiose and GLU deserve further consideration. [less ▲]

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See detailAMPK is involved in the differential neonatal performance of chicks hatching at different time
Wang, Yuan ULiege; Buyse, J.; Song, Z. et al

in General and Comparative Endocrinology (2016), 228

We have recently reported that the hatching time may be in relation to the distinct neonatal performance of female chicks. The present study was aimed to investigate the potential involvement of AMPK, an ... [more ▼]

We have recently reported that the hatching time may be in relation to the distinct neonatal performance of female chicks. The present study was aimed to investigate the potential involvement of AMPK, an energy sensor which plays a pivotal role in energy homeostasis, in the distinct performance of the spread of hatching time model. As a result, hypothalamic AMPKα1 isoform gene expression was significantly higher in the late hatcher as compared to that of their early counterparts, whereas the total and phosphorylated levels of AMPKα subunit did not differ between the three hatchers. The hypothalamic orexigenic NPY and AgRP mRNA levels were higher in the late hatchers as compared to the early, and that of the middle hatchers was at an intermediate level. However, the anorexigenic POMC and CRH was also higher expressed in the late hatchers as compared to the early hatchers. In the liver, AMPKα2 mRNA level and the phosphorylation ratio of AMPKα was significantly lower in the late hatchers, as compared to their early counterparts. The hepatic phosphorylated GS levels of the late and middle hatchers were lower than that of their early counterparts. The expression of hepatic FTO gene of the late hatchers was significantly higher than that of their early and middle counterparts. Taken together, AMPK may play a significant role in the different neonatal performance of the spread of hatching time model. The central and peripheral AMPK in late hatchers exhibited a pattern of higher energy intake and lower energy expenditure, which resulted in a faster post-hatch growth. © 2016 Elsevier Inc. [less ▲]

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See detailDifferential Expression of Genes and DNA Methylation associated with Prenatal Protein Undernutrition by Albumen Removal in an avian model
Willems, E.; Guerrero-Bosagna, C.; Decuypere, E. et al

in Scientific Reports (2016), 6

Previously, long-term effects on body weight and reproductive performance have been demonstrated in the chicken model of prenatal protein undernutrition by albumen removal. Introduction of such persistent ... [more ▼]

Previously, long-term effects on body weight and reproductive performance have been demonstrated in the chicken model of prenatal protein undernutrition by albumen removal. Introduction of such persistent alterations in phenotype suggests stable changes in gene expression. Therefore, a genomewide screening of the hepatic transcriptome by RNA-Seq was performed in adult hens. The albumendeprived hens were created by partial removal of the albumen from eggs and replacement with saline early during embryonic development. Results were compared to sham-manipulated hens and non-manipulated hens. Grouping of the differentially expressed (DE) genes according to biological functions revealed the involvement of processes such as 'embryonic and organismal development' and 'reproductive system development and function'. Molecular pathways that were altered were 'amino acid metabolism', 'carbohydrate metabolism' and 'protein synthesis'. Three key central genes interacting with many DE genes were identified: UBC, NR3C1, and ELAVL1. The DNA methylation of 9 DE genes and 3 key central genes was examined by MeDIP-qPCR. The DNA methylation of a fragment (UBC-3) of the UBC gene was increased in the albumen-deprived hens compared to the nonmanipulated hens. In conclusion, these results demonstrated that prenatal protein undernutrition by albumen removal leads to long-term alterations of the hepatic transcriptome in the chicken. [less ▲]

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