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See detailE-health y sus implicaciones jurídicas: el marco europeo e italiano
Colussi, Ilaria Anna ULiege

Scientific conference (2016, November 11)

The conference focused on the right to health and its legal and ethical implications. The speech gave a framework on health policies in the European Union, and in particular on the use of technologies for ... [more ▼]

The conference focused on the right to health and its legal and ethical implications. The speech gave a framework on health policies in the European Union, and in particular on the use of technologies for health reasons. The Italian framework is also considered, in order to check the implementation of EU policies inside one National State and develop comparative analysis at that regard. [less ▲]

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See detailSanciones colectivas
Colussi, Ilaria Anna ULiege

Scientific conference (2016, November 07)

The conference focused on international relations, strategic policies and security issues, such as the birth and evolution of Islamic State. The speech was about international sanctions adopted for ... [more ▼]

The conference focused on international relations, strategic policies and security issues, such as the birth and evolution of Islamic State. The speech was about international sanctions adopted for guaranteeing peace and security. The legal framework has been analyzed, together with the political, economic and social effects of trade sanctions (such as embargoes) both from the perspective of sanctioning States and sanctioned ones. [less ▲]

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See detailLa palabra al pueblo: implicaciones jurídicas y políticas de la votación
Colussi, Ilaria Anna ULiege

Scientific conference (2016, October 13)

The conference was focusing on the Italian referendum for modifying the Constitution, to be held in December 2016. The speech posed the attention on the Italian constitutional system and its history, on ... [more ▼]

The conference was focusing on the Italian referendum for modifying the Constitution, to be held in December 2016. The speech posed the attention on the Italian constitutional system and its history, on the substance of the proposal of reform, and legal and political implications of the vote, i.e. the possible effects on European Union stability and on Italian scenario. [less ▲]

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See detailInternational Trade Sanctions related to Dual-Use Goods and Technologies
Colussi, Ilaria Anna ULiege

in Athens Journal of Law (2016), 2(4), 237-252

One of the basic rules in trade law is the freedom of trade. However, such rule encounters some limitations when the object of trade is constituted by strategic items, such as dual-use items, which may ... [more ▼]

One of the basic rules in trade law is the freedom of trade. However, such rule encounters some limitations when the object of trade is constituted by strategic items, such as dual-use items, which may have peaceful (civilian/commercial) or non peaceful/military applications. Trade of these categories of goods needs to be controlled, as they can provoke security concerns. Such control is pursued through control lists, licenses, authorizations to stakeholders of the supply chain, information- sharing and cooperation mechanisms, reports, records, declarations, screenings and sanctions as well. The paper aims at focusing on the issue of sanctions, in particular the ones established at the international level: these measures are provided for the violation of trade rules in reference to dual-use items, and/or sanctions have as an object this type of goods. The legal provisions established by the World Trade Organization (WTO) and at the United Nations level are analysed thereafter. Brief observations are offered as regards the EU framework of restrictive measures too. [less ▲]

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See detailAction and Reaction: Effects of Country-based Trade Sanctions
Colussi, Ilaria Anna ULiege

in Strategic Trade Review (2016), 2(3), 103-120

Trade sanctions consist of export restrictions and embargoes, or import or customs restrictions, and boycotts. Such measures, which can be adopted at the international, regional or national level, are ... [more ▼]

Trade sanctions consist of export restrictions and embargoes, or import or customs restrictions, and boycotts. Such measures, which can be adopted at the international, regional or national level, are economic tools for achieving foreign policy objectives. The effects that they produce are several, and they cover the political, economic and social spheres. This article analyzes the possible consequences of trade sanctions, in particular embargoes addressing targeted states, in order to evaluate their effectiveness. Two case studies of sanctions, the Iranian and the Russian case, are presented. [less ▲]

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See detailDerecho constitucional comparado: observaciones desde la perspectiva europea
Colussi, Ilaria Anna ULiege

Scientific conference (2016, September 13)

The conference was focused on Comparative Constitutional Law. The speech (in Spanish) was aimed at highlighting the object, methodology, nature, purpose of comparative constitutional law, and underline ... [more ▼]

The conference was focused on Comparative Constitutional Law. The speech (in Spanish) was aimed at highlighting the object, methodology, nature, purpose of comparative constitutional law, and underline current and future challenges of the field from the European perspective. An analysis of forms of State, of government and different types of Constitutions and legal systems is offered, as well as the convergence between systems of common law and civil law, and the actual tendencies of "osmosis" of human rights' protection. [less ▲]

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See detailIn search for a definition of sanctions in the context of strategic trade control
Colussi, Ilaria Anna ULiege

in Paile, Sylvain; Michel, Quentin; Jankowitsch-Prevor, Odette (Eds.) Controlling the trade of strategic goods. Sanctions and penalties (2016)

One of the basic rules in trade law is the freedom of trade. However, such rule encounters some limitations, derogations and exceptions when the object of trade is constituted by strategic and sensitive ... [more ▼]

One of the basic rules in trade law is the freedom of trade. However, such rule encounters some limitations, derogations and exceptions when the object of trade is constituted by strategic and sensitive items. The concept of “strategic trade” is one of the most ambiguous ones, and there is not a common definition of it. Even if the General Agreements on Tariffs and Trade (GATT) does not offer such an explanation, its Article XXI can be construed as referring to strategic trade, as much as it states that the provisions of GATT (grounded on free trade) need not apply in cases where “essential security interests” are involved. The concept of “essential security interests” is also vague, as it is left upon the individual parties to the GATT to decide what it means. Despite such ‘slippery slope’ in the definition of terms, it results, however, that strategic trade is linked to norms and measures that aim at controlling trade, in order to ensure the protection of non economic needs, such as national security, public morals, public order, etc. This area finds at the intersection of commercial and foreign policy. For ensuring the protection of non economic interests, it is necessary to introduce measures that provide for controls on all activities conducted by individuals, organizations, and groups regarding goods, equipment, materials, services related to strategic items: these activities shall cover the whole supply chain, including design, development, production, possession, delivery, transport, transit, trans-shipment, financing, brokering, exports, re-exports, transfers and imports. The actors intervening in the draft of rules and controls are mainly the States, and the international and regional organiza- tions; then, important subjects are national licencing authorities and enforcement agencies such as customs, border security, police and armed forces, if needed. The targets of such measures of control could be the States, if the rules at the international or regional level are addressing them, and/or the operators involved in strategic trade. Considering the ways in which States organize such controls, the reality shows that they have introduced control lists, licences and authorisations granted on the basis of conditions and criteria, information-sharing and cooperation between authorities and operators, duties of transparency through reports, records, dec- larations and screenings. Moreover, measures exist that consist of restrictions, bans and penalties providing that consequences in case of violation of strategic trade rules. Therefore, the issue of sanctions is a relevant part of the strategic trade law, and it inserts within that context. The purpose of this contribution is to define what sanctions in strategic trade mean and to systematize them accordingly. In particular, the sanctions are categorized into three groups: A. “supranational sanctions”; B. “implementing sanctions”; C. tertium genus: “unilateral sanctions” and “countermeasures”. [less ▲]

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See detailINTERNATIONAL AND EUROPEAN SANCTIONS FOR THE TRADE OF DUAL-USE GOODS AND TECHNOLOGIES: A COMPARATIVE OVERVIEW.
Colussi, Ilaria Anna ULiege

Scientific conference (2016, May 09)

One of the basic rules in trade law is the freedom of trade. However, such rule encounters some limits when the object of trade is constituted by strategic and sensitive items, among which there are the ... [more ▼]

One of the basic rules in trade law is the freedom of trade. However, such rule encounters some limits when the object of trade is constituted by strategic and sensitive items, among which there are the so-called 'dual-use' goods and technologies. Despite the difficulty to define them, there is a common understanding that they are materials and items normally used for civilian/peaceful purposes but which may also have military application. Because of their 'sensitiveness' and their risk to affect security, health, the environment etc., their trade needs to be controlled. One form of controlling their trade is represented by the imposition of sanctions to be adopted in case of violation of trade rules. In our understanding, there are three categories of sanctions: (a) ‘supranational’ ones, enacted at the international and European Union (EU) level, which are addressing the whole States (‘comprehensive’ sanctions, such as embargoes, boycotts and financial measures), or specific individuals or groups involved in legal activities (‘targeted’ or ‘smart’ sanctions, such as asset freezes and travel bans); (b) ‘implementing’ ones, which are enacted at national level. They consist of administrative, civil or criminal rules implementing legally binding/‘hard law’ supranational rules (i.e., national sanctions for violation of international or regional embargoes or other trade sanctions), and those implementing politically binding or ‘soft law’ rules (i.e., national sanctions for the violation of export control regimes, which are the guidelines for dual-use trade, provided by international forum of countries within the Zangger Committee, the Nuclear Suppliers Group, Australia Group, the Wassenaar Arragement and the Missile Technology Control Regime, and at the EU level through the Regulation 428/2009); and (c) ‘unilateral sanctions’ and ‘countermeasures’, which are National autonomous measures against another State or the single citizens of that State. In this paper, the focus is posed on the first category only. It aims to analyse - with a comparative approach - on the one hand, the types of measures adopted at the level of the United Nations (UN) on the basis of Chapter VII of the UN Charter and through the Security Council resolutions and, on the other one, the restrictive measures introduced within the Common Foreign and Security Policy of the EU. [less ▲]

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See detailMitigating the Nuclear ‘Dual-Use Dilemma’: Suggestions for the Enhancement of the Culture of Responsibility
Colussi, Ilaria Anna ULiege

in Fleck, Dieter; Black-Branch, Jonathan (Eds.) Nuclear Non-Proliferation in International Law. Vol. III: Legal Aspects of the Use of Nuclear Energy for Peaceful Purposes (2016)

This Chapter aims at delineating a proper ethical and legal response to the ‘dual-use dilemma’ of nuclear science and technologies. After assessing the different models of governance proposed so far for ... [more ▼]

This Chapter aims at delineating a proper ethical and legal response to the ‘dual-use dilemma’ of nuclear science and technologies. After assessing the different models of governance proposed so far for addressing the ‘dual-use’ feature of nuclear technologies, and based on precautionary, proactionary and cost/benefit approaches, it develops a framework based on the notion of ‘responsible stewardship’. This framework is based on a comprehensive analysis – through the involvement and cooperation, as much as possible, of all the stakeholders in the field – of both the advantages and the risks of the nuclear area, considering social, ethical, legal, environmental and political values. The policies then adopted are periodically and constantly revised (according to a ‘step by step’ principle) and based on the proportional balance of interests, values and rights at stake. A multilevel framework of sources and actors is involved in such a responsible process. A specific attention is devoted to the balance between the freedom to research and the security needs at the individual and at the State level, in particular focusing on Article IV of the Treaty of Non-Proliferation of Nuclear Weapons. Concrete ways for applying such model are explained, in particular with regard to the control of materials, education of people, and control of information. Finally, the historical steps in the governance of nuclear technologies are explored and some examples provided for the suggested approach. [less ▲]

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See detailBest Practice Guidelines for Cooperative Compliance with Nuclear Non-Proliferation Obligations
Colussi, Ilaria Anna ULiege; Martellini, Maurizio

in Black-Branch, Jonathan; Fleck, Dieter (Eds.) Nuclear Non-Proliferation in International Law, Volume II, Verification and Compliance (2016)

The role of the law in front of nuclear technologies and nuclear weapons is a meaningful one. The law is aimed to regulate the existing nuclear activities, or – at a preliminary stage – to (try to ... [more ▼]

The role of the law in front of nuclear technologies and nuclear weapons is a meaningful one. The law is aimed to regulate the existing nuclear activities, or – at a preliminary stage – to (try to) prevent and govern the risks arising from the misuse of nuclear technologies, or to tackle the problem of nuclear proliferation. However, on many occasions, it appears that the law is inefficient to deal with these issues. Thus, the paper proposes some “best practice” legal ways to be followed, in order to build a cooperative nuclear compliance at a global level. The analysis starts from the focus on the Treaty of Non-Proliferation (NPT), highlighting the content of Article VI as judicially interpreted by the International Court of Justice, and examining the gaps and limits that the NPT still owns. After defining the notions of “verification, compliance and enforcement”, the paper concentrates on some methods and mechanisms that have been established at the international law level in general, with the purpose to obtain the respect of international rules. In the belief that the comparison could be useful as a “source of inspiration” for the nuclear non-proliferation, the chosen ways of verification and compliance pertain to the area of environmental law and trade law. On the basis of such comparison, a set of guidelines for enhancing cooperative compliance in the nuclear field is concretely offered. In particular, it is stressed to (a) collect and monitor the data; (b) reinforce the structure and action of the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA); (c) involve other UN bodies, of States and civil society; and (d) follow the principles of (i) the rule of law, (ii) impartiality and non-discrimination, (iii) transparency, and (iv) responsibility. [less ▲]

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See detailMitigating the Nuclear ‘Dual-Use Dilemma’: Suggestions for the Enhancement of the Culture of Responsibility
Colussi, Ilaria Anna ULiege

Conference (2015, November 19)

The speech aims at delineating a proper ethical and legal response to the ‘dual-use dilemma’ of nuclear science and technologies. After assessing the different models of governance proposed so far in ... [more ▼]

The speech aims at delineating a proper ethical and legal response to the ‘dual-use dilemma’ of nuclear science and technologies. After assessing the different models of governance proposed so far in nuclear field for addressing the ‘dual-use’ feature of nuclear technologies, and based on precautionary, proactionary or cost/benefit approaches, it suggests the adoption of a framework based on the notion of ‘responsible stewardship’. This model entails: (a) a constant analysis of nuclear technology, both on the side of risks and of benefits, through the involvement and cooperation of all the stakeholders in the field (the involvement of both ‘top down’ and ‘bottom up’ actors, i.e. governments and scientific community); (b) the adoption of policies through ‘hard law’ and ‘soft law’ sources, which should be periodically revised, and based on the proportionality principle and the reasonableness one (with a balance among rights and freedom, from a constitutional viewpoint); (c) an ongoing communication, dialogue and interaction between actors in the nuclear area. A specific attention is devoted to the balance between the freedom to research and the security needs. Then, the concrete ways for applying such model are explained, in particular with regards to the issue of control of materials, education of people, and control of information. Finally, the historical steps in the governance of nuclear technologies and the positions of different religions addressing the issue have been explored, in order to provide some examples of the suggested approach. [less ▲]

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See detailThe notion of trade sanctions and the EU system
Colussi, Ilaria Anna ULiege

Conference (2015, November 09)

The main rule in trade law is the freedom of trade. However, some limitations should be introduced for protecting non-economic interests, such as security. One of the ways for ensuring these interests is ... [more ▼]

The main rule in trade law is the freedom of trade. However, some limitations should be introduced for protecting non-economic interests, such as security. One of the ways for ensuring these interests is represented by national strategic trade control systems. In case of violation of these rules, sanctions should be provided. The contribution aims at analysing the existing sanctions in trade law area, distinguishing between "internal penalties", meant as the violation of export control regimes, and "external sanctions", referred to the violation of embargoes. The analysis is a comparative one, and focuses particularly on the EU level. [less ▲]

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See detailLa vulnerabilidad como valor jurídico-ético para asegurar el «best interest» de los menores: comparación entre el tribunal europeo de derechos humanos y el tribunal de justicia de la Unión Europea
Colussi, Ilaria Anna ULiege

in Alvarez Vélez, Isabel; Rey Pérez, José Louis (Eds.) Derecho y pobreza (2015, October)

Within the concept of "vulnerability" - considered as an inherent or innate value of the human being, from which it is necessary to start in order to build a genuine social policy- the children's ... [more ▼]

Within the concept of "vulnerability" - considered as an inherent or innate value of the human being, from which it is necessary to start in order to build a genuine social policy- the children's vulnerability occupies a special position. Traditionally, children have been treated as objects of protection and not as subjects of rights according to an authoritarian and paternalistic perspective. Over time, a different view of this matter has developed, and it has put the child at the center of attention, considering his vulnerabilities, needs and interests. This perspective has been reflected in the legislation, in case law and doctrine, both internationally and nationally. The concept of "best interest" is the key for addressing children's vulnerability of children and developing substantive equality for them. The European Court of Human Rights in Strasbourg and the Court of Justice of the European Union in Luxembourg have defined this concept in different areas: in the field of international child abduction, immigration, asylum and family reunification, custody and parental responsibility. Although these two tribunals have grounded their arguments on different legal perspectives, both have shown and still show a trend towards convergence to common points, through a balanced consideration of rights in this area. This communication aims at examining the relevant jurisprudence of the aforementioned tribunals about the notion of "best interest" of the child. The case-law since 2011 until 2015 has been taken into account. [less ▲]

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See detailThe system of sanctions for the illicit trade of nuclear goods
Colussi, Ilaria Anna ULiege

Conference (2015, September 17)

In the area of nuclear non proliferation, the illicit trade of goods that could be used to create nuclear weapons cannot be neglected. Indeed, many States and non-States actors seeking nuclear weapons or ... [more ▼]

In the area of nuclear non proliferation, the illicit trade of goods that could be used to create nuclear weapons cannot be neglected. Indeed, many States and non-States actors seeking nuclear weapons or wanting to maintain existing nuclear weapons arsenals or capabilities look for obtaining, acquiring and transporting in their own States or locations dual-use technologies, items and materials. This entails a chain of “actors”: (a) the suppliers of goods, (b) a procurement organization, (c) a trade company for the procurement of goods, (d) intermediaries in transport, and (e) banks which could finance the operations. Therefore, a set of measures for preventing the illicit trade, and for sanctioning the occurred one, need to be defined. The paper aims at focusing on the “sanctioning” phase for illicit trade of dual-use nuclear items. It analyses the set of sanctions established at the international and European Union level, precisely the economic sanctions (e.g.: embargos), the financial one (i.e., freezing of assets), the visa and travel bans, and the limitations on transport of goods (i.e., export/import restrictions), by considering the legal texts adopted in the international and European Union framework, according to a comparative analysis. [less ▲]

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See detailThe ‘Landscape’ of Nuclear Safeguards: a Comparative Analysis of the International and Regional Systems
Colussi, Ilaria Anna ULiege

Poster (2015, August 24)

Nuclear proliferation poses a severe threat to the international community, and the role of the law in this area is crucial. The notion of ‘nuclear non-proliferation’ is twofold: (a)disarm or vertical non ... [more ▼]

Nuclear proliferation poses a severe threat to the international community, and the role of the law in this area is crucial. The notion of ‘nuclear non-proliferation’ is twofold: (a)disarm or vertical non-proliferation: measures for reduction of the number of existing arsenals; (b)horizontal non-proliferation: containment of the number of States and no State entities that do not have but are acquiring nuclear weapons, or developing the capability and materials for producing them. Different sources of the law exist at the international and regional level for addressing the issue. For the implementation of the principles and obligations embedded in the agreements, it is essential to set up a verification and safeguards system. Safeguards provisions are established at the international and regional level. Thus, the aim of this study to analyse, critically and comparatively, the different safeguards systems that have been legally adopted at the international and regional level so far. [less ▲]

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See detailSynthetic Biology: A Driving Force of Innovation in Law?
Colussi, Ilaria Anna ULiege

in Santosuosso, Amedeo; Goodenough, Oliver; Tomasi, Marta (Eds.) The Challenge of Innovation in Law. The Impact of Technology and Science on Legal Studies and Practice. (2015)

Law is changing. Although both specialists and society as a whole often act as if it is an un-changing monolith, any rational commentator must note that it has evolved over time. Changes do occur, in ... [more ▼]

Law is changing. Although both specialists and society as a whole often act as if it is an un-changing monolith, any rational commentator must note that it has evolved over time. Changes do occur, in doctrine, in procedure, in jurisprudential understanding, and in legal education. The factors which drive innovation in law include social transformation, cultural change, and, importantly, the technological possibilities of the times for creating, storing and applying legal information. New technologies can also require new doctrinal developments. Such changes often do not come easily for the legal system. The myth of stability is maintained in part because the acceptance by the public rests on this assumption. It remains a myth, nonetheless. The impact of innovation on law is clearly two-fold: on the one side, innovation invests the way law is created, managed, and applied. On the other side, the emersion of new technologies calls for a reshaping of existing legal norms in specific fields. The book is divided into two parts. The first one offers a general overview on the systemic technologically-driven change law is going to face in the next few years. In the second part, issues like robotics, genetics, ICTs, Internet, protection of intellectual property rights, synthetic biology are presented as a laboratory bench of scientific and technological innovation which calls for legal innovation. This book, together with the course Innovating Legal Studies and Practice, established at the University of Pavia, is one of the principal outcomes of a two-year project funded by Cariplo Foundation (Fondazione Cariplo, Milan). [less ▲]

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See detailBiolaw and dual use dilemma: the freedom of scientific research in relationship with traditional and emerging sciences and technologies
Colussi, Ilaria Anna ULiege

Conference (2015)

Science and technology require an intervention by the law, and law is called upon to intervene in front of their evolution, and to look for proper solutions of governance and rational responses to their ... [more ▼]

Science and technology require an intervention by the law, and law is called upon to intervene in front of their evolution, and to look for proper solutions of governance and rational responses to their risks. One of the main issues to be investigated from the legal viewpoint is represented by the ‘dual-use dilemma’ that arises both in ‘traditional’ and new areas of techno-sciences. Indeed, any kind of research has the potential to be used both for bad as well as for good purposes. Therefore, it is important to reflect upon the ways to control possibly dangerous research without preventing the progress from going further. Such ‘dual-use dilemma’, then, entails the study of one of the fundamental freedoms in the biolaw area: the freedom of scientific research, its limits, and relationship with other rights/needs/freedoms (such the need of security). This work focuses on two areas of the techno-scientific world. One is more ‘traditional’, i.e. nuclear science, in whose context the reflections on ‘dual-use’ were born and developed, and the other one is a new emerging technology, which is synthetic biology. The aim is to understand how the freedom of scientific research could be shaped in relationship with other rights/needs/interests for dealing with ‘dual-use’ issues in the aforementioned areas of science and technology. [less ▲]

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See detailSynthetic biology as a new threat to biosecurity. Is there a road to suitable governance?
Colussi, Ilaria Anna ULiege

in Romeo Casabona, Carlos Maria (Ed.) Bioterrorismo y bioseguridad (2015)

Synthetic biology, which is a new emerging technology aiming at re-writing existing biological systems and designing completely new parts and devices, brings several potential benefits, but at the same ... [more ▼]

Synthetic biology, which is a new emerging technology aiming at re-writing existing biological systems and designing completely new parts and devices, brings several potential benefits, but at the same time it constitutes a new threat to biosecurity: for such “double Janus face”, it can be considered as a “dual use research”. Indeed, the risk that its theoretical discoveries and applications are handled by bioterrorists and used for malevolent purposes is not a mere hypothesis. Therefore, it is necessary to look for possible solutions for the governance of this type of risk. In order to try to achieve such purpose, the analysis focuses, first of all, on the overview of the existing regulations against bioterrorism. Then, these regulations are evaluated in the light of the constitutional frame of fundamental rights at stake (in the belief that any policy/regulation should take into account and be based on the respect of fundamental rights). Thirdly, the applicability of the existing regulatory framework to synthetic biology is checked. Fourthly, the different positions that have been proposed so far for addressing biosecurity risks in the area of synthetic biology are shown and put into comparison. Finally, the proposal of a model of governance, called of “prudent vigilance”, is described. [less ▲]

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See detailRecensión del libro "Synbio and Human Health. A Challenge to the Current IP Framework?", editado por Iñigo de Miguel Beriain y Carlos María Romeo Casabona
Colussi, Ilaria Anna ULiege

in Revista de Derecho y Genoma Humano = Law and the Human Genome Review (2014), 41(December 14), 177-178

It is the review of the Book "Synbio and Human Health. A Challenge to the Current IP Framework?", edited by De Miguel Beriain and Romeo Casabona. The importance of synthetic biology for its challenges to ... [more ▼]

It is the review of the Book "Synbio and Human Health. A Challenge to the Current IP Framework?", edited by De Miguel Beriain and Romeo Casabona. The importance of synthetic biology for its challenges to legal and ethical areas are particularly stressed. [less ▲]

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See detailSynthetic biology between challenges and risks. A Legal Perspective
Colussi, Ilaria Anna ULiege

Book published by Scholars'Press (2013)

Synthetic biology, a converging science and technology characterized by the adoption of an engineering approach to life, shows several applications. However, it could also generate numerous risks. This ... [more ▼]

Synthetic biology, a converging science and technology characterized by the adoption of an engineering approach to life, shows several applications. However, it could also generate numerous risks. This book aims at individuating a regulatory framework and a model of governance for addressing the risks arising within synthetic biology area. This is to ensure that the progress is not hindered but, at the same time, the problematic issues are not neglected. The suggested model is named "prudent vigilance" (inspired by the report about synthetic biology, drafted by the U.S. Presidential Commission on Bioethics, 2010). It entails: (a) an ongoing and periodically revised assessment and management of the risks, assembling all the stakeholders in a democratic way, and (b) the adoption of policies, from the "top down" and "bottom up" levels, that are based on the principle of proportionality (among benefits and risks), on a reasonable balancing between different interests and rights at stake, and on a constitutional frame, i.e. the protection of human rights. In the end, the operability of the model is checked by considering, as a case study, the biosecurity risks of synthetic biology. [less ▲]

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